Figure 3 : Mechanism for the regulation of Nrf2 mediated antioxidant gene expression by PC.

Nrf2 remains associated with Keap1 protein in the form of the Keap1-Nrf2 complex under homeostatic condition, hence retained inside the cytoplasm by Keap1 protein. Interaction of PCs with Keap1 protein triggers the release of Nrf2 from the Keap1-Nrf2 complex. CA generated FR may activate the various signaling pathways, which may triggers the release and translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus, which is responsible for the expression of AO genes. (PC- Phytochemical; CA-Chemopreventive agent; OS- Oxidative stress; FR-Free radical; PKC- Protein kinase C; PI3K- phosphoinositide 3-kinase; MAPK- mitogen-activated protein kinase; Keap1- Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1; Nrf2- nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2; ARE- antioxidant response element; AO- Antioxidative; mRNA- Messenger ribonucleic acid; UGT- UDP glucuronosyltransferase; HO-1-hemeoxygenase-1; GST- glutathione S-transferase; NQO1- NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1; CM- Cellular membrane; NMNuclear membrane).

Sharma et al.Biochemical Compounds  2017 5:2DOI : 10.7243/2052-9341-5-2