Preventive medicine

Preventive Medicine focuses on health of individuals, communities and defined populations. Its objective is to protect, promote and sustain health and well-being. Preventive medicine specialists are licensed medical doctors who possess core competencies in biostatistics, occupational medicine, epidemiology, environmental, planning and evaluation of health services. Preventive Medicine applies knowledge and skills gained from social, economic, medical, and behavioral sciences.

Occupational and environmental epidemiology

Occupational and environmental epidemiology are two areas of epidemiology which focus on studying potential health risks of exposure to chemicals, particulates, metals, infectious disease agents, and psychosocial factors in workplace and general environment. Diseases concern in occupational and environmental epidemiology can include entire spectrum of health outcomes, such as cancer, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and dermal disease as well as injuries, reproductive and mental health outcomes.

Epidemiology of cancer

Epidemiology of cancer is the way to infer possible trends and causes and factors affecting cancer. Study uses epidemiological methods to find cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments. This area of study is concerned with problems of lead time bias and length time bias.


Outbreak is a term used when sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place. It may impact a small and localized group or affect thousands of people across an entire continent. Two linked cases of a rare infectious disease may be sufficient to constitute an outbreak.

Public health policy

Health policy is the decision, plan and action undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society. A precise health policy can achieve several things for future. It outlines priorities and expected roles of different groups and builds consensus. Many categories of health policies include personal health care policy, pharmaceutical policy and policies associated to public health such as vaccination policy and tobacco control.


Meta-analysis is a statistical method for contrasting and combining results from different studies, in hope of identifying patterns among study results and sources for disagreement. Meta-analysis can be taught as conducting research about previous research. In a simple form, meta-analysis is done by identifying a common statistical measure that is shared among studies, such as effect size and a weighted average is calculated for that common measure.

Tropical infections

Tropical diseases are diseases that occur solely and prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. The term is often taken to refer to infectious diseases that increase in hot, humid conditions such as malaria, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, African leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, and dengue. Insects such as mosquitoes and flies are the most common disease carriers. Most often disease is transmitted by an insect "bite" which causes transmission of the infectious agent. Human exploration of tropical rainforests, deforestation, rising immigration and increased international air travel to tropical regions has led to an increased incidence of such diseases.

Emerging or re-emerging infections

Emerging or re-emerging infections are infections which have incidence of emerging and increase in threat to humans in the near future. Developing countries such as India suffer excessively from the burden of infectious diseases given confluence of existing environmental, demographic and socio-economic factors. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will progressively require more application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, a national policy on early finding and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action.

Vaccine studies

Vaccine studies determines the safety and effectiveness of vaccines. Vaccines are designed to be given routinely during child care visits; hence they must be extraordinarily safe. Safety testing begins as soon as a new vaccine is contemplated and continues until approved and monitored indefinitely after licensure.

Infectious disease

Infectious diseases are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water and being exposed to organisms in the environment. Certain infections are passed from person to person. Many infectious diseases, such as measles and chickenpox can be prevented by vaccines. Regular and thorough hand-washing also helps to protect from infectious diseases.

Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) describes a range of conditions which affect the heart. The term heart disease is usually used with the term "cardiovascular disease". CVD generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels which can end up in a heart attack, chest pain or stroke. Other heart conditions are those that affect hearts muscle, valves or rhythm. In a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels include coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction. Other CVDs are stroke, congenital heart disease, endocarditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease and venous thrombosis. Many forms of heart disease can be prevented or treated with healthy lifestyle choices.

Communicable diseases

Communicable diseases are diseases which often spread via airborne viruses, bacteria or through blood and other bodily fluids from person to person or animal to person. Infectious and contagious are terms also used for communicable diseases. Efforts are being made to combat few of the most serious communicable diseases around the globe.

Food hygiene

Food hygiene are conditions and necessary measures to ensure safety of food from production to consumption. Food can become infected at any point during slaughtering or harvesting, processing, storage, distribution, transportation and preparation. Lack of adequate food hygiene can lead to food borne diseases.