Multiple sclerosis "MS" is a frequent demyelinating disease that affecting the central nervous system and associated with a progressive clinical course or severe disability in young adults. This narrative review summarizes the comprehensive information about adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells as one of the best sources for cell based therapy in demyelinating disease. The precise cause of MS is unknown, but the current evidence suggests that it can be linked to both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. During this abnormal condition, multifocal zones of inflammation due to focal immune cells infiltration and vascular abnormalities as well as change in plasmalemma permeability can occur which may are the primary cause of myelin sheath destruction. In addition to this pathological change, the formations of central nerve system plaques can also occur which crosstalk with the correct transmission of nerve impulse and finally lead to neuronal dysfunction. Conventional drug therapies for MS are not able to stop the degeneration of nerve tissue. So, stem cell based therapies has been proposed for the treatment of MS. In this narrative review, some of the characteristics and therapeutic effects of adipose-derived stem cells as a suitable cell source for cell transplantation in MS disease have been discussed.
Keywords: Central nervous system, multiple sclerosis, adipose-derived stem cell, cell transplantation