Background: Sildenafil is one of PDE-5(phospho-diestrase enzyme) inhibitors. It is used as an antihypertensive drug. Sildenafil is mainly metabolized in the liver, and there are cautions regarding the dose when prescribing sildenafil to children, and patients with hepatic impairment.
Materials and method: 24 male albino rats (150-350gm weight) were used. Animals were divided into four groups (6 rats each). The rats of treated groups (2, 3 and 4) received (1.43mg/kg body weight) of sildenafil citrate. The Control group received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. At the end of treatment after 30 days, liver samples were collected, processed and stained with (Haematoxylin & Eosin stain) for histological examination. For, ultrastructure studies, specimens were cut into small pieces, processed and ultra thin sections were cut, mounted on the copper grids. Sections were examined by JEOL-100SX transmission electron microscope connected to a digital camera.
Result: The pre-pubertal rats showed congested central vein and hepatic artery. Areas of inter-cellular vacuolization were observed. Adult rats showed congested central vein, hepatic artery and portal veins with severe inflammatory cell infiltration. Most of hepatocytes exhibited vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei. The senile rats showed congestion in both portal and central veins and increased number of von-kupffer cells. Areas of hemorrhage and necrosis were observed between hepatocytes. Most hepatocytes were degenerated with reduction of number.
Conclusion: Sildenafil Citrate drug may cause serious effect on the liver, this effect becomes worse with advance in age.
Keywords: Liver, sildenafil citrate, von-kupher, hepatocyte