Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common and complex hormonal disorders affecting the females in the childbearing period. It is associated with several comorbidities recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated, for the first time to our knowledge, the myocardial structural changes in experimental PCOS rat model and the ameliorating effects of Brassica oleracea(broccoli) extract. Forty adult female rats were divided into four groups; control, broccoli extract treated, PCOS and PCOS treated with broccoli extract. PCOS was induced by a single intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate (EV) (16mg/kg). Four weeks after EV injection, broccoli extract (1g/ kg dissolved in distilled water) was given orally once daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected. The myocardial specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical studies. PCOS group showed oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. The myocardium exhibited many degenerative changes with significant increase in the cross-sectional area of cardiac myofibers and collagen deposition.Significant upregulation of androgen receptor, caspase-3, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) with downregulation of desmin and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) immunoreaction was also noted. Broccoli extract exerted cardioprotective effects in PCOS through antioxidant and antiandrogen activities. The results of this work may throw more light on the myocardial damage associated with PCOS and provide a new insight into the possible use of broccoli extract to alleviate these effects.
Keywords: Myocardium, PCOS, Broccoli, Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry, Biochemistry