†These authors contributed equally to this work.
2. Nova Southeastern University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA.
3. Department of Anesthesiology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan, USA.
Emergence delirium (ED) is a post-surgical phenomenon associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. A systematic review of all current treatment modalities for this condition is imperative given its prevalence during postoperative recovery. This review scrutinizes a number of studies in order to better characterize ED, with particular focus paid to the condition's etiology, associated risk factors, prevention and management. Extensive studies have been conducted on the pediatric population with little attention directed towards the adult and geriatric age groups. Despite this, evidence-based protocols for the management of this condition are still lacking for all age groups. In order to ensure cost effective management and improved safety outcomes for ED, future research should establish and further improve upon screening protocols to identify at risk patients, in addition to formulating a standardized treatment regimen for perioperative patients at risk.
Keywords: Emergence delirium, anesthesia recovery period, anesthetic issues and peri-operative care, perioperative complications, preoperative evaluation and anesthesia risk, complications in the post anesthesia care unit