Table 1 : Factors associated with not understanding medication labeling on univariate analysis (crude odds ratio) and multiple logistic regression (adjusted odds ratio)


Socio Demographic Characteristics Category cOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI

Gender Male 0.86 0.56 - 1.32 1.06 0.67-1.67
  Female 1.00 - - -
Residence Urban 1.00 - - -
  Rural 1.45 0.94 -2.24 1.24 0.77-1.99
Race Malay 1.00 - - -
  Chinese 1.14 0.67 - 1.93 1.10 0.63-1.94
  Indian 0.50 0.23 - 1.11 0.53 0.24-1.19
  Other Bumis 0.19 0.03 - 1.40 0.45 0.06-3.44
  Others 0.55 0.07 - 4.01 0.16 0.22-1.16
Age Group 18-29 1.30 0.41 - 4.15 1.40 0.44-1.53
  30-39 1.00 - - -
  40-49 1.54 0.65 - 3.61 1.18 0.49-2.83
  50-59 1.64 0.72 - 3.76 1.04 0.46-2.52
  60-69 1.41 0.56 - 3.58 0.70 0.26-1.86
  70 and above 2.15 0.71 - 6.52 1.01 0.31-3.24
Education level No formal education 10.39 2.33 - 46.34 12.85 2.71-60.99
  Primary 4.58 1.10 - 19.02 4.87 1.13-20.89
  Secondary 2.33 0.55 - 9.94 2.41 0.56-10.35
  Tertiary 1.00 - - -

Sahril et al.Journal of Diabetes Research and Clinical Metabolism  2012 1:23DOI : 10.7243/2050-0866-1-23