2. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia.
3. Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia.
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease with autoantibodies against glutamic-aciddecarboxylase (GAD)65, insulin and tyrosine phosphatase (TP) as a feature of disease. The correlations of these autoantibodies with disease severity remain to be explored. Here we investigate the status and contribution of autoantibodies against GAD65, insulin and TP in T1D patients and to explore whether these antibodies have a role in T1D progression and in T1D associated neuropathy.
Methods: Sera from 57 T1D patients with varying levels of disease activities and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated for anti-GAD65-antibodies, anti-insulin-antibodies and anti-TP-antibodies.
Results: Serum analysis showed T1D patients contain 42% of anti-GAD65-antibodies, 76% of anti-insulin-antibodies and 34% of anti-TP-antibodies. Interestingly, not only was there an increased number of subjects positive for these antibodies, but also levels of these antibodies were significantly higher among T1D patients whose ages were >35 years as compared with younger T1D patients (age ≤35 years). In addition, significant correlation was observed between the levels of these antibodies and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Furthermore, T1D neuropathic patients had higher levels of these antibodies compared with T1D patients without neuropathy.
Conclusions: Our data support an association between these markers autoantibodies and severity of T1D. The stronger response observed in patients with uncontrolled T1D suggests that these antibodies may be useful biomarkers in evaluating the progress of T1D and in elucidating the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.
Keywords: Diabetes type 1, autoimmunity, anti-GAD65-autoantibodies, anti-insulin-autoantibodies, anti-TP-autoantibodies, T1D progress, T1D associated neuropathy