Table 2 : Description of the evaluated model for dermal exposure assessment according to the multi-criteria analysis.

Origin UK   Nicaragua   The Netherlands   UK   USA/Canada   Europe   The Netherlands

Year 2002   2008   2003   1994   2002   2003   2003

Goal Risk assessment in  SMEs   Risk assessment in developing countries   Risk assessment of occupational exposure in any situation   Risk assessment for regulatory of new chemicals   Standardized
exposure estimates
  Risk assessment for regulatory and registration processes   Risk assessment in  SMEs

Basis Operational exposure levels  assess exposure and R-phrases for health hazard   Transport Processes, Schneider, 1999[29] DREAM, 2003 [35]   Transport processes, Schneider, 1999 [29]. Airborne concentrations (Cherrie, 1996)   Computer aided decision tree format (Johnston et al.,
2005), Schneider,
  Reported information on pesticides and monitoring data   Schneider, 1999 [29]; COSHH[16].   Schneider, 1999 [29]; COSHH [16]. Riskofderm[ 25]
SME’s   Farmers in developing countries   Industrial processes and farming systems   Industrial processes   Regulatory agencies, pesticide industry   Operational and technical staff mostly in SMEs   Dutch companies

Availability Electronic version   Publication   Publication   Software available   Software and publication   Software and publication   Website

Guidance Website with guidelines for specific industries   Publication   Publication   Not available   Publication   Publication   Website with no guidelines about the algorithms

No specific expertise required and electronic version available   Basic mathematics skills and easy to carry out in the field   Basic mathematics skills and easy to carry out in the field   Knowledge of the model and programming   Knowledge of the criteria and their effects on exposure. Computer required   Knowledge of the model and computer required   Internet access required

Reliability Evaluated by the NIOSH authority   Not validated   Good inter-observer agreement   Distributed over 200 users in EU, USA, ASIA and Australia   Evaluated and approved by EPA   Developed  by 15 European institutes based on a large database.   Widely used in The Netherlands

Outcome Semi-quantitative (bands)   Semi-quantitative   Semi-quantitative   Quantifies the degree of exposure   Semi-quantitative   Quantitative   Ranking of risks in bands

Type of evaluated substances Chemical products except pesticides   Pesticides   Metals, fluids and pesticides   Pure substances, no mixtures   Pesticides   Pure substances including pesticides   Pure substances and mixtures

dermal exposure pathway
Deposition, indirect and direct contact   Transfer, deposition and emission   Transfer, deposition and emission   Emission to surface, air, outer clothing layers and direct to skin   No Data   Deposition and direct contact   Inhalation Exposure (near and far field). Total dermal exposure

Dermal exposure descriptor Potential exposure   Potential and actual exposure   Potential and actual exposure   Potential exposure   Actual exposure   Potential and actual exposure   Potential and actual exposure

Body Parts
No information available   Front and back side of neck, thorax, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, feet, forehead and left and right side of face   Head, upper and lower arms, hands, front torso, back, upper legs, lower legs and feet   Hands and forearms   Head, face, back and front neck, chest/stomach, back, upper arms, forearms, hands, thighs, lower legs, feet.   Hands, arms, head, front and back side of legs, front and back of torso   No information available

Reference [16]   [3]   [38]   [5]   [8]   [25]   [32]

Lesmes Fabian et al.Journal of Environmental Engineering and Ecological Science  2014 3:1DOI : 10.7243/2050-1323-3-1