Aim: The present study is aimed to isolate the essential oil of Citrus limettioides and analyze its chemical composition and antimicrobial potential.
Methods: The essential oil (EO) isolated by hydro-distillation from the peel of fully matured ripen fruits of Citrus limettioides Tanaka and analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antifungal activity in terms of zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was tested against ten food borne fungal strains and ten bacterial strains. The EO was also examined for any possible toxicity or adverse effect resulting from its consumption.
Results: Fourteen different components were identified constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil. The major components were dl-limonene (89.089%), β-myrcene (2.933%), (±)-linalool (2.927%), α-pinene (0.865%), (E)-citral (0.749%) etc. According to disc diffusion assay and broth micro-dilution method showed that EO has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against the tested strains with their MIC ranging from 3.12 μl/ml to50 μl/ml.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that EO of Citrus limettioides can be used in skincare formulations for acne control, in treatment of various infectious diseases like typhoid fever, food poisoning, inflammation, sepsis, endocarditis, bladder, prostate and epididymal infections. Along with this it can also be used as safer and alternative means of food preservation. No serious or life-threatening side effects were observed on the haematological and biochemical parameters of mice fed with specific dose of EO of Citrus limettioides, therefore the EO can be recommended as safe fumigant for preservation of food commodities.