Present review article emphasizes role of regeneration mechanism in various tissues and its use in organ transplantation for wound healing and repairing. This article also explains uses of various stem cell types in transplantation technologies and its applications in regenerative medicine and therapeutics. This review also addresses tissue engineering methods and use of new biological scaffold materials and promising candidates such as immunomodulators, adhesions, integrins in tissue repairing and induction of regeneration in injured tissues. In addition, role of various molecules of immune cell system, gene cascades and transcription specific proteins (TSPs) and growth factors in formation of microenvironment for differentiation are also explained. Moreover, mechanism of regeneration in various tissues such as neural, skeletal, cardiac, muscular, adipose and gonadial tissues, and bone marrow is described in detail. This article also suggest an urgent need for development of new advanced methods, technologies, biomatrices, polymers and scaffold materials, and cell based therapies to overcome the problem of disable and injured patients. Hence, landmark innovations are required in the field of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and developmental biology for successful tissue repairing and organ transplants to serve the human society.
Keywords: Stem cells, regenerative medicine, wound healing, organ transplants, cell replacement therapies