This report aims to investigate the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Indigenous Australians, with recommendations to Australians Health Professionals in order to increase awareness of Indigenous health peculiarities related to diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes has become one of the most common public health problems of the 21st century. The proportion of Aborigines Australians developing T2D is 5 to 10 times greater than non-Aborigines. Although DM in Aboriginal community is multifactorial, this report shows three perceived causes: (i) obesity and the "Thrifty Gene Hypothesis", (ii) geographical position and (iii) smoking. It concluded that the combination of these causes have increased the incidence of DM among Indigenous Australians. Therefore, the following are recommended: improvement of genetic research, improvement of medical facilities, and increased employment of Indigenous Health Professionals and improvement of anti-smoking policies.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, aborigine, Australia, obesity