2. Ivanovo State Medical Academy, Ivanovo, Russia.
3. Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Ivanovo, Russia.
Background: This paper is focused on diagnosis of calcium oxalate renal stones as the most frequent form of urolithiasis in a human society.
Materials and methods: A systematic review of the experimental and clinical studies on calcium oxalate urolithiasis performed during the last two decades has been used to elaborate new programs for diagnosing this frequent disorder.
Results: We have proposed new simple step-by-step algorithms for the diagnostics of calcium oxalate stones which take into account the qualitative mineralogical composition of a calculus and results of the biochemical tests of urine and blood of a patient. The frequency of stone formation, the monohydrate/dihydrate ratio and amount of minor components have been determined to be the key parameters defining the strategy of a metabolic evaluation.
Conclusions: The concept proposed here is closed on basic measures clear for any physician, not too expensive for a patient and it may be realized in any clinics if the information about the exact mineralogical composition of a calculus is available.
Keywords: Calcium-oxalate calculi, qualitative mineralogical analysis, step-by-step diagnostic programs, uric acid derivatives