Table 1 : Synthesis of the studies included.


Study Year of
publication
Country of origin Nr. of
participants
Average
participants’
age
Nr. of RCF Cause of
nursing
problem
SeTe type Aim of
measurement
Duration of measurement Wearable/non-wearable SeTe Nr. of SeTe per
participant
Diversity of SeTe Study design Study
duration (days)
Studies objectives

Zhu et al. 2013 2013 AM(CA) - - m - Camera Fall Permanent Non-wearable - 1 Retrospective study - Detect falls and provide data on causes and circumstances of falls.

Kangas et al. 2009 2008 EU(SW) 21 83 ø Overaging Accelerometer Fall Permanent Wearable 1 1 Prospective observational study <1 Validate a fall detector and fall detection algorithms.

Koczy et al. 2011 2011 EU(GE) 333 80 45 Staff
unawareness
Pressure sens. Activity/Mobility Permanent Non-wearable 1 1 Prospective observational study 90 Reduce the physical restraints for residents.

Schwesig et al. 2012 2012 EU(GE) 141 83 15 Overaging,
multiple
Multiple Fall Temporary Wearable 1 2 Prospective follow-up study 360 Develop an objective, feasible and efficient fall risk evaluation tool.

Phillips et al. 2015 2015 AM(US,CO) 26 84 8 Immobility Accelerometer Activity/Mobility Indefinite Wearable 4 2 Prospective observational study <1 Compare the accuracy of accelerometer-detected steps.

Huizing et al. 2009 2009 EU(NL) 241 83 7 Staff
unawareness
Pressure sens. Localization Permanent Non-wearable 1 1 Educational controlled experiment 240 Reduce physical restraints by using alarming sensor mats.

Martien, Delecluse, et al. 2015 2015 EU(BE) 68 86 3 Overaging,
immobility
Accelerometer Activity/Mobility Permanent Wearable 2 2 Prospective validation study 3 Investigate if walking speed or walking affect pedometer and multisensor.

Martien, Seghers, et al. 2015 2014 EU(BE) 40 86 3 Overaging Multiple Activity/Mobility Indefinite Wearable 1 4 Prospective observational study 3 Evaluate the validity of energy expenditure a sensor.

Källman et al. 2015 2015 EU(SW) 25 85 3 Multiple Multiple Activity/Mobility Temporary Wearable 1 3 Descriptive comparative study 7 Associate lying positions on pressure, temperature and tissue blood flow.

Yang et al. 2015 2015 AM(CA) 309 80 2 - Camera Fall Permanent Non-wearable 264 1 Retrospective study 2160 Analysis correlation between falls and activity, imbalance and use of mobility aids.

Kearns et al. 2012 2012 AM(US,FL) 69 77 2 Multiple Multiple Activity-,location Permanent Both 4 2 Prospective observational study 360 Compare movement variability preceding a fall with residents who did not fall.

Buckinx et al. 2014 2013 EU(BE) 62 80 2 Overaging Accelerometer Fall Temporary Wearable 1 1 RCT 180 Measure the effect of a training method on physical abilities.

Tamrat et al. 2012 2012 AM(US,NY) 12 79 2 - Accelerometer Fall Permanent Wearable 5 1 - 12 Capture potential fall events.

Vlaeyen et al. 2013 2013 EU(BE) 3 90 2 Vague Camera Fall Permanent Non-wearable 4 1 Prospective observational study 510 Examination of the phases of video-based real-life fall events.

Rezaee et al. 2015 2015 AS(IR) - - 1 Overaging Camera Fall Permanent Non-wearable 1 1 Retrospective study - Detecting motion pattern by identifying the involved joints position.

Nakamoto et al. 2010 2010 AS(JP) - - 1 Vague Camera Fall Permanent Non-wearable 5 1 - - Detect by a multi-camera gates fall incidents.

Rantz et al. 2015 2015 AM(US,CO) 133 83 1 - Multiple Behavi-
our,Fall
Permanent Non-wearable 3 5 Retrospective study 1800 Evaluate how long of residents live in RCF with sensor-surveillance.

Braun et al. 2014 2015 EU(NL) 58 - 1 Staff shortage, other Camera Other Indefinite Non-wearable 1 1 Prospective observational study 11 Increase physical activity and to reduce disease related symptoms.

Lipsitz et al. 2016 2016 AM(US,MA) 52 86 1 - Accelerometer Fall Permanent Wearable 1 1 Prospective observational study 180 Adjust sensor-detected falls and falls reported by nursing staff.

Van Lummel et al. 2013 2011 EU(NL) 31 88 1 - Accelerometer Activity/Mobility Temporary Wearable 4 2 Prospective observational study - Quantify the sit-to-stand assessment.

Kawada 2013 2013 EU(UK) 31 79 1 - Accelerometer Other Temporary Wearable 1 1 Cross-sectional study 8 Measuring sleep duration.

Gietzelt et al. 2014 2014 EU(GE) 28 76 1 Multiple Accelerometer Fall Temporary Wearable 1 1 Cohort study 300 Make a fall prognosis in residents.

Doshi-Velez et al. 2012 2012 AM(US,MA) 28 - 1 - Other Localization Permanent Non-wearable 53 1 Controlled study 120 Locating residents and providing alerts of residents leaving the RCF.

van Lummel et al. 2012 2012 EU(NL) 26 85 1 - Multiple Activity/Mobility Temporary Both 5 2 Prospective observational study - Quantifying the seat-off and seat-on during STS.

Fontecha et al. 2013 2013 EU(SP) 20 84 1 Multiple Accelerometer Behaviour Temporary Wearable 1 1 Pro-/retrospective study 360 Supporting frailty assessment in elderly people in realtime.

Merilahti et al. 2016 2015 EU(FL) 16 91 1 Other Accelerometer Activity/Mobility Indefinite Wearable 1 1 Retrospective study 450 Associate physical functioning status with diurnal activities and sleep patterns.

Capezuti et al. 2009 2009 AM(US,PH) 16 80 1 - Multiple Fall Permanent Non-wearable 3 2 Prospective observational study 270 Test 2 bed-exit alarms, a warning voice message and a air-filled bed-barrier.

Pat Rapp et al. 2010 2010 AM(US,TX) 16 83 1 - Accelerometer Activity/Mobility Temporary Wearable 3 1 Prospective observational study 4 Optimal placement of activity monitors by site.

Perrochon et al. 2015 2015 EU(FR) 16 87 1 Dementia Accelerometer Fall Temporary Wearable 2 1 Prospective follow-up study 56 Rehabilitate gait disorders by an 8-week multicomponent exercise program.

Jit et al. 2009 2009 AS(SP) 15 - 1 - Accelerometer Activity/Mobility Permanent Wearable 1 1 Prospective observational study 14 Chart activity patterns and circadian rhythm.

Chen, Bharusha, et al. 2007b 2007 AM(US,PA) 15 - 1 Staff shortage, overaging Camera Multiple Permanent Non-wearable 23 1 Prospective observational study 1 Person identification in an ambient camera network environment.

Yu et al. 2013 2013 AM(US,PA) 13 - 1 - Camera Behaviour
,location
Permanent Non-wearable 15 1 Prospective observational study - Perform localization, tracking and face recognition of persons-of-interest.

Kogure et al. 2011 2011 AS(JP) 12 84 1 Overaging Pressure sens. Other Permanent Non-wearable 1 1 Prospective observational study 1 Improve sleep quality.

Nava-Muñoz & Morán 2012 2012 AM(MX) 12 - 1 Staff shortage/unawareness Multiple Multiple Permanent Both - 5 Prospective observational study 21 Increase the awareness of caregivers about care situations.

Chen, Chang, et al. 2007 2006 AM(US,PA) 10 - 1 - Camera Multiple Permanent Non-wearable 1 1 Retrospective study 6 Protect the privacy of specific individuals in video.

Fernández-Llatas et al. 2013 2013 EU(SP) 9 - 1 - Other Behaviour
,location
Permanent Both 1 1 Evaluation trails 180 Support human behaviour modeling.

Hsiao et al. 2015 2016 AS(TW) 9 - 1 Immobility Pressure sens. Mobility,
location
Permanent Non-wearable 15 1 Prospective observational study - Localisation and motion detection in bed.

Aloulou et al. 2013 2013 AS(SP) 8 85 1 Overaging, dementia Multiple Multiple Permanent Non-wearable 7 5 Prospective observational study 420 Support healthcare / caregivers by helping residents to perform their ADL’s.

Aloulou et al. 2014 2014 AS(SP) 8 85 1 - Multiple Multiple Permanent Non-wearable - 5 Evaluation trails 510 Enable an assistive living solution according to residents´ disease evolution.

Wang et al. 2011 2011 AM(CA) 6 87 1 Multiple Other Other Permanent Wearable - 1 Prospective observational study 16 Enable independent power wheelchair mobility without harming others.

Popescu & Mahnot 2012 2012 AM(US,CO) 6 70 1 Multiple Multiple Behaviour Permanent Non-wearable 47 5 Prospective observational study 720 Early detection of signs of illness.

Bankole et al. 2011 2011 AM(US,VR) 6 82 1 Dementia Accelerometer Behaviour Permanent Wearable 3 1 Prospective observational study <1 Detect and quantify agitation.

Frenken et al. 2012 2012 EU(GE) 5 83 1 Overaging, staff shortage Multiple Activity/Mobility Temporary Non-wearable 7 3 Prospective observational study <1 Analysis of gait and balance for differential diagnosis.

Debard et al. 2012 2012 EU(BE) 4 89 1 Overaging Camera Fall Permanent Non-wearable 4 1 Prospective observational study 180 Reduce falling consequences by informing caregivers immediately.

Chang et al. 2015 2015 AS(CH) 4 80 1 Dementia Pressure sens. Behaviour Indefinite Non-wearable 35 1 Prospective observational study <1 Assessing wandering behaviours by motion sensing carpet.

Rantz et al. 2009 2009 AM(US,MI) 2 89 1 - Multiple Multiple Permanent Non-wearable - 2 Retrospective study 1080 Detect changes in the residents’ health status.

Guettari et al. 2013 2013 EU(FR) 2 77 1 - IR-camera Localization Permanent Non-wearable 5 1 Prospective observational study 1 Locate residents inside a building.

Wai et al. 2008 2008 AS(SP) 1 80 1 Dementia Other Other Permanent Wearable 1 1 Prospective observational study 7 Smart wireless continence management system.

Gibson et al. 2009 2008 EU(NL) 1 - 1 - Multiple Multiple Permanent Non-wearable 13 4 - - Monitoring ADLs by a non-intrusive wireless sensor network.

Fehling et al.Journal of Nursing  2017 4:1DOI : 10.7243/2056-9157-4-1