2. Faculty Member, College of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
3. Associate Professor, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
4. Professor Assistance of Public Health, Department of Medical Science, Qazvin Medical University, Qazvin, Iran.
5. Faculty Member, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
Background: Presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process of the eye in which the loss of flexibility of the crystalline lens takes place over a number of years. This study aimed to determine differences in age of onset and progression of presbyopia between smoking and non smoking patients in Qazvin-Iran.
Material and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in Boali Hospital in Qazvin-Iran between 2011 and 2012. Within the context of this survey, 304 eligible participants over 30 years age were randomly selected for interview and underwent nearvision testing. Of these, 152 participants were smokers and formed the case group and 152 non-smoking people were considered control participants. Functional presbyopia was defined as requiring at least +0.75 diopter in order to read the N8 optotype at a distance of 35 cm in the participant's usual visual state. Optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed on all participants. presbyopic correction coverage were calculated and the results were analyzed using SPSS Program with P<0.05.
Results: A total of 304 participants' records were evaluated. Of those, 152 cigarette smokers were categorized as samples and 152 normal patients as control group. Eighty-five patients with ages between 39-40 year among smoking group needed to use glasses for near tasks, but nobody in normal group needed presbyopic glasses. There were significant differences in the age of onset and or progression of presbyopia were detected between smoking and normal patients (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Our study is the first population-based investigation of presbyopia in Iran, with the aim of determining age of onset and progression of presbyopia among smoking people related to normal population. The results of this study indicate that the onset of presbyopia among smoking group was earlier than normal group. Statistically significant difference in the age of onset and progression of presbyopia was found between smoking and non-smoking patients.
Key words: Presbyopia, smoker people, prevalence, lens flexibility, accommodation