Table 1 : Outcome measures utilized during 5-week training program.


Outcome Measure Purpose Reliability Validity

Timed Up and Go test (TUG) Assesses mobility while testing both static and dynamic balance. In this test, an individual
will be required to stand up from a seated position, walk 10 feet, walk around a cone,
and then return to the chair and a seated position. The individual is timed.14
-Test-retest (in elderly adults): adequate (0.56 ICC)14
-Inter-rater (in elderly adults): excellent
(0.04 seconds between testers)14
- Concurrent (in elderly adults): ability to predict fall risk showed specificity of 60% and sensitivity of 56%14
- Convergent (in community-dwelling older adults): adequate rating between other outcome measures
(r = -0.55-0.66)14

Four Square Step test (FSST) Measures dynamic balance and coordination through stepping in four directions. The individual is timed.15 -Test-retest (in geriatrics): excellent
(0.98 ICC)15
-Inter-rater (in geriatrics): excellent
(0.99 ICC)15
-Concurrent (geriatrics): excellent with Step Test
(r=-0.83) and TUG (r = 0.88) but fair with
Functional Reach (r=-0.47)15

30-second Chair Stand test Assesses lower extremity strength and overall endurance. An individual will rise to a full standing position and then descend to sitting as many times as possible in 30 seconds.16 -Test-retest (in community-dwelling elderly): excellent between total number of participants (r=0.89), males (r=0.84), and females (r=0.92)16
-Inter-rater (in community-dwelling elderly): excellent (r=0.95)16
-Concurrent (in community- dwelling elderly):
excellent compared with several other tests
(r=0.71-0.78)16

Activities-Specific Balance
Confidence (ABC) scale
Self assesses an individual’s confidence while performing different, everyday tasks. The individual is asked to rate how confident they are while performing a variety of tasks on
a percentage scale of 0-100%. This measure is subjective and helps quantify confidenc
e in the community in relation to falls.17
-Test-retest (in elderly):
excellent (r = 0.92)17
-Concurrent (in geriatric females): varies with correlation of other tests (-0.65 - 0.57)17

GAITRiteComputerized Walkway
System and Protokinetics Movement
Analysis Software PKMAS software system
Evaluates gait during backward and forward walking. Analysis includes velocity, step
length, cadence, stride length, etc.18
-Excellent correlation in one healthy woman (ICC > 95) for spatial measures18
-Excellent correlation in one healthy woman (ICC >93) for video-based temporal measures18
-“Measures of step lengths and times were reliable
in both walkway center and left-of center measurements” in one healthy woman18

GAITRite® Mat(CIR Systems, Franklin, NJ)
ProtokineticsMovement Analysis Software, PKMAS, (ProtoKinetics, LLC, Havertown, PA)

Maritz et al.Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation  2017 4:16DOI : 10.7243/2055-2386-4-16