2. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
Background: The prevalence of menstrual irregularities and low bone mineral density (BMD) varies widely in the general population and in the athletic community. Pulsed electromagnetic therapy(PEMT) may stimulate bone formation and prevent bone loss.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMFT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in female athletes.
Subjects and methods: A total of 40 female athletes selected from the outpatient clinic of faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo. Their age was ranged between 15-25 years, BMI: 20-24.9 kg/ m2. They were randomly allocated into two groups: studygroup (A), and the control group (B). The pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMFT) at low frequency 33 Hz and intensity of 50 gauss which equal 60% of the maximum intensity was applied for 30 min, three times weekly for 4 months on the lumbar and hip region for the study group (A). All participants adhered to the calcium and vitamin D medications prescribed by their physicians. BMD was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for both groups (A&B) before and after treatment.
Results: The results revealed a significant increase in BMD of right neck femur and lumber spine (L1-4) in both groups after the treatment program (study group, P<0.001&0.002 and control group, P<0.001&0.001 respectively). Between groups, there were significant differences in BMD of right neck femurand lumber spine (L1-4) but in favor of group A (P<0.001&0.009). The mean values in BMD of Rt neck femur after treatment were 1.021±0.067, 0.959±0.053 in both groups A and B, respectively. The mean values in BMD of lumber spine (L1-4) were 1.044±0.116, 0.970±0.019in both groups A and B, respectively.
Conclusion: PEMFT is a useful therapeutic procedure to increase BMD in female athletes.
Keywords: BMD, Female, Athelete, PEMF, Vitamin D