Table 2 : Summary of protocol I and modified protocol II for differentiation of HIO.

  iPSC Stage 1   Stage 2 Stage 3 (from stage 2
floating or excised spheroids)

Protocol I growth factors -- Activin A WNT3A, FGF-4 -- EGF, Noggin, R-Spondin1
Protocol II growth factors -- GDF-8, GSKi, B27 KGF KGF, RA EGF, Noggin, R-Spondin1
Days incubation -- 3 3-4 4 26+
Cell type Pluripotent Definitive Endoderm   Hindgut Intestinal epithelial
Stage markers OCT4, SOX2, Nanog, SSEA3,Tra-1-81 SOX17, CXCR4   CDX2 E-Cadherin, CDX2,
Villin, chromagranin A

Hornby et al.Stem Cell Biology and Research  2015 2:1DOI : 10.7243/2054-717X-2-1