Skin development and Aging
Skin development is development of the epidermis which contains skin cells, pigment, and proteins. The dermis contains nerves, oil glands, blood vessels and hair follicles. The dermis provides nutrients to the epidermis. The inner layer under the dermis contains sweat glands, blood vessels, some hair follicles and fat. Aging is the change in skin and is a group of common conditions and developments that occur as people grow older. Evidence of increasing age includes wrinkles and sagging skin. Whitening of the hair is another obvious sign of aging. Skin contains nerve receptors that allow feeling of touch, pain, and pressure it helps control fluid, electrolyte balance and temperature.
Skin disorders and melanomas
Most common Skin disorders are moles, chickenpox, acne, rashes, psoriasis, vitiligo, impetigo hives, eczema (atopic, allergic, or nummular dermatitis), seborrheic dermatitis (causing cradle cap or dandruff), skin cancer, rosacea, and warts. Melanoma is a cancer that develops in melanocytes which are the pigment cells present in skin. Melanomas can be more severe than other forms of skin cancer because it may multiply to other parts of the body (metastasize) which can cause serious illness and death. Melanomas occur on the skin where they can be seen, patients often detect first. Early detection and diagnosis is crucial. Most melanomas can be cured with relatively minor surgery.
Dermal structures comprise layers of skin in between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues that consists of connective tissue and secures the body from stress and strain. The superficial area adjoining the epidermis is called papillary region and a deep thicker area known as reticular dermis. The dermis is firmly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane. Structural components of dermis are collagen, elastic fibers and extrafibrillar matrix. It also contains mechanoreceptors which provide sense of touch and thermoreceptors which provide sense of heat. Dermal structures include hair follicles, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, sweat glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels are present in dermis. Blood vessels provide nourishment and waste removal for both dermal and epidermal cells.
Aesthetic dermatology comprises of group of treatments which are used to improve personal appearance rather than address an underlying disease. The different types of treatments covered under aesthetic dermatology are chemical peels, liposuction, enhancements, wrinkle fillers, microdermabrasion and laser resurfacing. Most aesthetic dermatology treatments are focused on improving the appearance and texture of skin, especially on face. Fillers and injections of patented substances are used to improve condition of facial muscles and plump up depressions in skin. Several periodic treatments may be needed since results are usually temporary.
Dermatological surgery and lasers
Dermatologic surgery is a practice in dermatology that specializes in surgical procedures and minimally invasive treatments to improve health and appearance of skin. A dermatologic surgeon is a board-certified physician who specializes in skin surgery. Nearly all dermatologic surgeons perform both medically necessary and cosmetic surgery procedures. Dermatologic surgeons are pioneers in research and development of many of today's most effective therapeutic and cosmetic skin care solutions. In fact, dermatologic surgeons are responsible for the development and refinement of today's therapeutic and cosmetic surgery procedures listed as follows: Anti-aging and cosmetic approaches, age spots and birthmark correction, dermabrasion, hair loss and restoration, laser resurfacing and skin rejuvenation, chemical peels, laser hair removal, liposuction using local anesthesia, neuromodulators (botulinum toxin), scar improvement, soft-tissue augmentation (fillers), tattoo removal and vein treatments.
Skin cancers are cancers that occur in skin. They are due to development of abnormal cells which have ability to spread to other parts. There are three main types: basal-cell cancer, squamous-cell cancer and melanoma. First two are less common skin cancers and are known as nonmelanoma skin cancer. Basal-cell cancer grows slowly and can damage tissue around it but is not likely to spread to distant areas or results in death. Squamous-cell cancer is more likely to spread. Melanomas are the most aggressive.
Pediatric dermatology is the study of skin conditions of human skin and its associated diseases of children. Skin conditions such as, eczema, warts, birthmarks, psoriasis etc Pediatric dermatologists treat variety of pediatric skin conditions using latest available treatment methods. Pediatric dermatologists treat children from birth through adolescence.
An antifungal medication is used to treat and prevent mycoses such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush) and others. Oral antifungal medications currently in use include ketoconazole itraconazole, terbinafine and fluconazole. They are reserved for extensive or severe infection because of high cost, potential side effects and drug interactions. Griseofulvin, nystatin, is only appropriate for intestinal candidiasis. Voriconazole has recently become available for fungal infections in hospitalized patients.