The required ability of individuals to practise 'responsible self-medication' on minor ailments without medical practitioners' attention is demonstrably lacking among mothers of under-five children in Nigeria. There are few studies on mothers' practice of responsible self-medication in Nigeria. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the practice of self-medication among 226 mothers of under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Findings revealed that 53.4% mothers of under-five whose children fell sick two weeks before the survey applied self-medication as first action; 81.4% disclosed that they ever administered nonprescribed drugs for their children, 47.3% reportedly applied self-medication based on competence, while 19% were encouraged by family members to use non-prescribed drugs. Healthcare practitioners should involve household members in focused awareness on self-medication and its negative implications in order to encourage them to serve as change agents against the practice by mothers.
Keywords: Management of childhood illnesses, patent medicine vendor, self-medication, under-five children, Nigeria