Journal of Anesthesiology & Clinical Science

Journal of Anesthesiology & Clinical Science

ISSN 2049-9752
Original Research

Pretreatment with butorphanol reduces myoclonus after etomidate

Xiaohong Zhao1, Rui Bao2, Jiali Zhu2, Zheng Liu2, Yan Meng2, Xiaohua Fan2* and Jinbao Li2*

*Correspondence: Jinbao Li
or Xiaohua Fan

2. Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Author Affiliations

1. Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of Jinan Military Area, Ji Nan, China.


1. Etomidate is often used in the induction of general anesthesia with a very stable hemodynamic profile. Myoclonus is a common problem during induction of anesthesia with etomidate, which may be a problem in the non-fasting patient. It has been shown that the incidence of myoclonus is decreased with a variety of opioid agents. Butorphanol is a strong analgesic with both narcotic agonist and antagonistic properties. This study aims to determine the efficacy of butorphanol and fentanyl for prevention of etomidate-induced myoclonus.
2. One hundred-fifty ASA |-|| patients, undergoing elective surgery were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 50 each. Butorphanol group received butorphanol 2 mg, fentanyl group received fentanyl 100 μg, and placebo group received normal saline. Ninety seconds after pretreatment patients received etomidate 0.3 mg·kg-1. Assessment of myoclonus with IV etomidate was done by using a four-point scale: 0 = no myoclonus, 1 = mild myoclonus, 2 = moderate myoclonus, and 3 = severe myoclonus during a 60-second period after etomidate injection.
3. In the placebo group 41 (82%) patients had myoclonus after etomidate injection as compared to 12 (24%) and 2 (4%) in the fentanyl and butorphanol groups, respectively (p <0.001).
4.Butorphanol is an effective and safe drug to reduce the etomidate-induced myoclonus without significant effects.

Keywords: Etomidate, Myoclonus, Butorphanol, Fentanyl

ISSN 2049-9752
Volume 2
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