Current cancer treatment still faces many challenges, while drug development and consequently novel treatments lag behind. Treatment of cancer has made tremendous progress in the last few decades. For example, childhood cancer in the developed countries can be cured for the majority of patients, but as demonstrated in a paper in the first volume , lags behind in developing countries. Unfortunately, this is often caused by lack of resources, but also by ignorance of the health authorities and of cancer patients. However, education of both the physician and the patient will increase admittance to specialized hospitals and improve treatment outcome. This also will help to characterize differences in genetic properties, which are often found between these ethnic populations. This will help to personalize treatment, first for the ethnic group, but with the ultimate aim for the individual patient.