Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) refers to the constellation of metabolic disturbances manifested by acute renal failure associated with marked hyperuricemia. TLS may be seen after initiation of cancer treatment. It usually occurs in patients with bulky, rapidly proliferating, treatment-responsive tumors. Spontaneous TLS, occuring prior to the initiation of cancer therapy, has been reported in hematologic malignancies like high grade non Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and acute leukemia, and in at least one patient with inflammatory breast cancer. The actual incidence of this occurrence is difficult to ascertain. We present, in this report, the case of a woman with a stage IV adenocarcinoma of the breast diagnosed with spontaneous TLS, and we review the current literature on this rare but interesting disease manifestation.
Keywords: Tumor, breast, adenocarcinoma, tumor lysis, syndrome, spontaneous