The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Comprehensive Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, USA.
In the past decade, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treatment underwent significant advancement that resulted in an unprecedented improvement in the prognosis of this disease. This review will provide an updated review of currently approved treatment options, namely antiangiogenic and immunotherapy, as well as treatment guideline recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). We will summarize studies ongoing in determining prognostic and predictive biomarkers in maximizing therapeutic benefit in the treatment of this disease. Lastly, we will discuss promising agents in clinical testing.
Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma, target therapy, immunotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, monoclonal antibody, VEGF pathway, mTOR pathway, anti-PD-1 antibody, anti-CTLA-4 antibody, IL-2