Table 3 : Levels of anti-GAD65 antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies and anti-TP
antibodies in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic neuropathy.


Parameters T1D
(mean±SEM)
T1D neuropathy
(mean±SEM)
Healthy controls
(mean±SEM)

n 57 13 42
Anti-GAD65 antibodies
(normalized OD units)
0.024±0.003# 0.038±0.005 0.004±.0020
Anti-insulin antibodies
(normalized OD units)
0.033±0.023* 0.045±0.007 0.0037±0.0019
Anti-TP antibodies
(normalized OD units)
0.014±0.003@ 0.019±0.001 0.0035±0.0021

Abbreviations: T1D, type 1 diabetes; GAD65, glutamic acid decarboxylase; TP, tyrosine
phosphate; n, number of serum samples tested; SEM, standard error of means. #p<0.01
versus anti-GAD65 antibodies present in T1D neuropathy patients; *p<0.01 versus
anti-insulin antibodies detected in T1D neuropathy patients; @p<0.05 versus anti-TP
antibodies detected T1D neuropathy patients.

Rasheed et al.Journal of Diabetes Research and Clinical Metabolism  2013 2:24DOI : 10.7243/2050-0866-2-24