Table 3 : Odds ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) of having recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) or recurrent vaginitis in the past 12 months compared with no infections or non-recurrent infection for women.


  Recurrent UTIs vs.
No UTIs N = 1,250
Recurrent UTIs vs.
Non-recurrent UTIs N= 271
Recurrent Vaginitis vs.
No Vaginitis N = 1,223
Recurrent Vaginitis vs.
Non-recurrent Vaginitis N= 244

Characteristics Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p-value

Age, years (continuous) 0.99 (0.97-1.02) 0.69 1.02 (0.98-1.05) 0.33 0.93 (0.90-0.95) <0.0001 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.67
White (reference: other races than black) 0.60 (0.28-1.29) 0.19 0.76 (0.30-1.90) 0.56 1.21 (0.64-2.31) 0.56 1.49 (0.67-3.32) 0.33
Black (reference: other minority races) 0.57 (0.15-2.21) 0.42 0.11 (0.01-1.15) 0.06 0.61 (0.16-2.23) 0.45 0.78 (0.14-4.32) 0.77
Hispanic (reference: no) 0.88 (0.25-3.13) 0.85 0.78 (0.19-3.25) 0.73 0.41 (0.09-1.85) 0.24 0.74 (0.13-4.19) 0.73
Body mass index, kg/m2 (continuous) 1.01 (0.98-1.05) 0.45 1.01 (0.98-1.05) 0.47 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.45 1.04 (1.00-1.08) 0.07
Duration of diabetes, years (continuous) 1.02 (0.98-1.05) 0.37 0.99 (0.96-1.03) 0.66 1.00 (0.97-1.04) 0.91 0.97 (0.93-1.02) 0.25
Household income, (reference: >$75,000)     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -
<$30,000 1.57 (0.63-3.91) 0.33 1.18 (0.41-3.42) 0.76 1.61 (0.64-4.03) 0.31 0.82 (0.28-2.43) 0.72
$30,000-$49,999 1.05 (0.39-2.81) 0.93 0.92 (0.29-2.98) 0.89 1.22 (0.47-3.14) 0.68 1.01 (0.31-3.29) 0.99
$50,000-$74,999 1.10 (0.38-3.13) 0.86 1.32 (0.36-4.83) 0.67 1.07 (0.38-3.03) 0.90 1.06 (0.30-3.69) 0.93
Education (reference: some college or higher)     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -
High school degree or less 1.36 (0.78-2.40) 0.28 1.07 (0.54-2.12) 0.85 1.45 (0.84-2.48) 0.18 1.98 (1.02-3.84) 0.043
Health insurance (reference: no insurance) 0.98 (0.38-2.58) 0.98 0.76 (0.24-2.44) 0.65 0.50 (0.25-1.00) 0.051 0.51 (0.21-1.24) 0.14
Diabetes treatment (reference: no treatment)     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -
OADs alone 1.14 (0.45-2.85) 0.79 1.65 (0.56-4.86) 0.36 2.29 (0.84-6.25) 0.10 2.95 (0.92-9.47) 0.07
Insulin alone 1.70 (0.51-5.65) 0.39 2.00 (0.50-8.04) 0.33 2.22 (0.62-7.89) 0.22 2.04 (0.44-9.48) 0.36
OAD + insulin 1.68 (0.56-5.03) 0.35 3.80 (0.98-14.83) 0.054 6.07 (2.04-18.06) 0.001 4.31 (1.19-15.57) 0.026
Comorbid conditions (reference for each: absence of condition)     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -
Overactive bladder/ incontinence 3.60 (1.95-6.64) <0.0001 2.07 (0.99-4.34) 0.053 3.29 (1.69-6.41) <0.0001 1.22 (0.52-2.86) 0.66
Kidney problems 2.56 (1.23-5.35) 0.012 1.51 (0.62-3.69) 0.36 2.00 (0.91-4.40) 0.08 1.00 (0.37-2.73) 1.00
Chronic kidney disease/ end-stage renal disease 0.91 (0.23-3.58) 0.89 0.70 (0.15-3.29) 0.65 1.36 (0.45-4.13) 0.58 3.11 (0.70-13.78) 0.14
Narrow or blocked arteries 2.76 (1.04-7.27) 0.041 2.67 (0.78-9.10) 0.12 4.46 (1.70-11.71) 0.002 3.83 (1.05-13.95) 0.042
Hypertension 1.33 (0.65-2.76) 0.44 1.32 (0.56-3.09) 0.53 0.97 (0.52-1.84) 0.94 0.83 (0.38-1.84) 0.65
Heart disease 0.78 (0.35-1.75) 0.55 1.16 (0.44-3.03) 0.76 0.44 (0.18-1.08) 0.07 0.67 (0.20-2.23) 0.52
Cholesterol problems 1.16 (0.60-2.24) 0.66 1.78 (0.81-3.94) 0.15 1.08 (0.58-2.03) 0.80 1.03 (0.48-2.20) 0.94
Stroke or transient ischemic attack 0.47 (0.13-1.76) 0.26 0.33 (0.07-1.58) 0.17 0.99 (0.38-2.56) 0.99 6.38 (0.99-41.06) 0.051
Angioplasty, stent, or bypass surgery 0.40 (0.09-1.71) 0.22 0.14 (0.03-0.77) 0.023 0.41 (0.11-1.56) 0.19 1.17 (0.19-7.11) 0.86
Heart attack 0.48 (0.09-2.66) 0.40 0.24 (0.04-1.46) 0.12 3.10 (0.92-10.46) 0.07 1.05 (0.21-5.13) 0.96
Circulation problems 1.49 (0.78-2.85) 0.23 0.94 (0.43-2.06) 0.88 2.23 (1.21-4.09) 0.010 1.40 (0.64-3.04) 0.40
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 0.11 (0.02-0.86) 0.035 0.04 (0.003-0.38) 0.006 0.77 (0.30-1.96) 0.59 1.29 (0.40-4.12) 0.67
Arthritis 1.17 (0.62-2.18) 0.63 1.23 (0.60-2.55) 0.57 1.01 (0.57-1.80) 0.96 0.84 (0.43-1.63) 0.60
Cancer, except skin 1.24 (0.60-2.58) 0.56 0.80 (0.34-1.87) 0.61 1.48 (0.71-3.09) 0.29 1.63 (0.67-3.99) 0.28

OAD = oral anti-diabetic agent.

M. Fox et al.Journal of Diabetes Research and Clinical Metabolism  2013 2:5DOI : 10.7243/2050-0866-2-5