Table 2 : Baseline scores for scales of physical and mental health functioning by disease status.


  T2DM at baseline
N = 1837
At risk for T2DM
N = 473
No DM
N = 4629

IPAQ score (physical activity)* N = 1786 N = 454 N = 4482†

Inactive, % 78.4 78.6 70.1

Moderately active, % 10.1 9.3 13.9

Highly active, % 11.5 12.1 16.0

SF-12 PCS – physical health, mean (SD)* 40.72 (12.69)
N = 1668
41.55 (12.20)
N = 418
46.50 (11.59)†
N = 4251
SF-12 MCS - mental health, mean (SD) 50.26 (10.32)
N = 1668
49.94 (11.09)
N = 418
50.46 (10.12)
N = 4251
PHQ-9 – depression*    

Mean (SD)* 4.86 (5.32)
N = 1738
4.99 (5.39)
N = 452
4.03 (4.83)†
N = 4438

No to minimal depression, % 61.9 59.5 68.6

Mild depression, % 21.2 23.9 19.5

Moderate depression, % 10.2 10.2 6.8

Severe depression, % 6.7 6.4 5.0

Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI)      

Work impairment for those
who work, mean (SD)*
11.93 (19.36)
N = 669
12.75 (18.95)
N = 178
9.46 (17.40)†
N = 2302

Activity impairment for all
respondents, mean (SD)*
27.01 (29.04)
N = 1815
27.11 (29.16)
N = 464
19.48 (26.26)†
N = 4548

*p <0.01 for comparison across all 3 groups; †p <0.01 for comparison of T2DM-at-baseline group with
No-DM group DM: diabetes mellitus; IPAQ: International Physical Activity Questionnaire; MCS: mental
component summary; PCS: physical component summary; PHQ: Patient Health Questionnaire; SF: Short
Form; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus

Fox et al.Journal of Diabetes Research and Clinical Metabolism  2014 3:1DOI : 10.7243/2050-0866-3-1