Table 4 : Regression coefficients and partial correlation coefficients for scales of
physical andmental health functioning, adjusting for age, cholesterol problems,
heart disease/heart attack, hypertension, obesity, and cigarette smoking.


Characteristics Beta coefficient
(95% CI)
Partial correlation coefficient P-value

SF-12 PCS      

T2DM at baseline vs. No DM –3.21 (-3.91, -2.51) –0.11 <0.0001
At risk for T2DM vs. No DM –2.35 (-3.52, -1.18) –0.05 <0.0001
Age –0.17 (-0.20, -0.15) –0.17 <0.0001
Cholesterol problems –0.96 (-1.62, -0.29) –0.03   0.005
Heart disease/heart attack –4.30 (-5.16, -3.44) –0.12 <0.0001
High blood pressure/hypertension –3.13 (-3.80, -2.46) –0.11 <0.0001
Obese –5.57 (-6.19, -4.95) –0.21 <0.0001
Current smoker –3.60 (-4.44, -2.77) –0.10 <0.0001

SF-12 MCS      

T2DM at baseline vs. No DM –0.72 (-1.33, -0.10 –0.03   0.022
At risk for T2DM vs. No DM –0.78 (-1.80, 0.24) –0.02   0.14
Age   0.17 (0.15, 0.19)   0.21 <0.0001
Cholesterol problems –0.64 (-1.23, -0.06) –0.03   0.030
Heart disease/heart attack –1.42 (-2.18, -0.66) –0.05 <0.0001
High blood pressure/hypertension –0.45 (-1.03, 0.14) –0.02   0.13
Obese –0.76 (-1.30, -0.22) –0.04   0.006
Current smoker –1.93 (-2.67, -1.20) –0.07 <0.0001

PHQ-9      

T2DM at baseline vs. No DM   0.58 (0.30, 0.87)   0.05 <0.0001
At risk for T2DM vs. No DM   0.53 (0.05, 1.02)   0.03   0.031
Age –0.05 (-0.06, -0.04) –0.13 <0.0001
Cholesterol problems   0.45 (0.18, 0.72)   0.04   0.001
Heart disease/heart attack   0.84 (0.49, 1.20)   0.06 <0.0001
High blood pressure/hypertension   0.49 (0.21, 0.76)   0.04 <0.0001
Obese   1.22 (0.97, 1.48)   0.12 <0.0001
Current cigarette smoker   0.86 (0.52, 1.20)   0.06 <0.0001

WPAI, Overall Work Impairment      

T2DM at baseline vs. No DM   1.08 (-0.94, 3.10)   0.02   0.30
At risk for T2DM vs. No DM   3.17 (-0.22, 6.56)   0.04   0.07
Age –0.11 (-0.19, -0.04) –0.07   0.002
Cholesterol problems   2.48 (0.84, 4.13)   0.06   0.003
Heart disease/heart attack   0.46 (-2.65-3.57)   0.01   0.77
High blood pressure/hypertension   1.43 (-0.31, 3.18)   0.03   0.11
Obese   3.83 (2.23, 5.42)   0.10 <0.0001
Current cigarette smoker   2.84 (0.73, 4.95)   0.06   0.008

IPAQ     Odds Ratio*  

T2DM at baseline vs. No DM –0.18   0.83 (0.74, 0.95)   0.005
At risk for T2DM vs. No DM   0.03   1.03 (0.83, 1.27)   0.80
Age –0.01   NA <0.0001
Cholesterol problems   0.18   1.20 (1.07, 1.34)   0.002
Heart disease/heart attack   0.19   1.20 (1.03, 1.41)   0.022
High blood pressure/hypertension   0.24   1.27 (1.13, 1.43) <0.0001
Obese   0.60   1.82 (1.63, 2.03) <0.0001
Current cigarette smoker   0.28   1.33 (1.14, 1.54) <0.0001

*odds of being highly active vs. not highly active
DM: diabetes mellitus; IPAQ: International Physical Activity Questionnaire; MCS: mental
component summary; PCS: physical component summary; PHQ: Patient Health
Questionnaire; SF: Short Form; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; WPAI: Work Productivity
and Activity Impairment

Fox et al.Journal of Diabetes Research and Clinical Metabolism  2014 3:1DOI : 10.7243/2050-0866-3-1