2. Ziauddin College of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.
3. Faculty of Pharmacy, Andalas University, Padang 25163, Indonesia.
4. Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.
5. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care on pharmacotherapy optimization and health related quality of life among Diabetes patients of endocrine clinic in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
Methodology: A non-experimental descriptive prospective case-control study design was chosen. A correlation study was considered but was not applicable due to the definition of poor glycaemic control as used in this study. The general hospital is the main government hospital in the Penang state and is situated within the city area offering tertiary care. To achieve a power of 0.7 with alpha set at 0.05, 186 subjects were required for the study but researcher increase the sample to 253 in case of drop out. The Research Ethics Committee of hospital and the Malaysian Medical Research and Ethics Committee approved the study. The Statistical package for Social Sciences [SPSS] version 19 ® was used for this analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05 for all analysis.
Results: There were no significant differences between cases and controls for any of the demographic variables that were documented. The sample was predominantly elderly type 2 DM patients. During the study period, the median [IQR] HbA1c levels did not change significantly in either the cases or controls at the beginning and end of the study [p>0.50 across time and between groups]. One hundred and three drug therapy interventions were made in the cases after a full medication review and subsequent discussion with the hospital physician. There were no significant differences in HRQOL within or between groups during the course of the study
[p>0.11]. As there were no significant differences in HRQOL in the univariate statistics, multivariate analysis was not undertaken.
Conclusion: The PC study highlights the value of the pharmacist as an information resource for patients with diabetes. This extends to complementary medicines where potential interactions with conventional therapy may be neither suspected nor recognized.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pharmaceutical care, pharmacist interventions, pharmacy practice.