2. Monash University, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Rural Health 381 Royal Parade Parkville, Vic 3052, Australia.
3. Deakin University and Flinders University, Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health, Warrnambool, Vic 3280, Australia.
Background: The use of pharmacological agents has been shown to slow down the progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Most clinical trials address one pharmacological intervention at a time. To date, only a few studies explored multi-factorial pharmacological interventions in T2DM individuals for preventing CVD related complications. Given the current therapeutic inertia in pharmacological management of CVD risk factors, it is important to establish the benefits of a more holistic approach. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess the efficacy of multiple pharmacological interventions for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors with or without conventional care in reducing all cause mortality, CVD mortality, stroke and cardiovascular events among adults with type 2 diabetes. Current evidence fails to support the benefit of multiple pharmacological interventions on all cause mortality and death from cardiovascular causes. However, beneficial effects were seen on the reduction of the overall number of cardiovascular events and there were promising trends for secondary outcomes such as stroke, myocardial infarction, revascularisation and amputation.
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes, mortality, pharmacological interventions, systematic review