Methodologies should comprise novel approaches in experiments and procedures applied at both laboratory and computational levels demonstrating the advancements over the existing methods and applications. These may be either improvised versions of tools and techniques, protocols or an absolute newly developed method. Before submission, the author should make sure that the method or tool is tested and undergone different validations. Submission criteria should meet suitable guidelines as specified in 'About this journal ' .
Manuscripts must be submitted as a soft copy in standard English (Either US English or British English but not as a mixture) only. No hard copies will be accepted. Only one author must submit the manuscript and the corresponding author holds complete responsibility while the submission process and other communications during publication process.
Epidemiology Reports accepts only electronic submissions to facilitate the rapid publication and reduce administrative costs. Authors are encouraged to submit the files as a batch or individually. The process is intermittent and can be continued later at the author’s convenience. Upon submission a manuscript identity number will be generated and the author may use this in further correspondence for enquiries. Click here to submit your manuscript.
With the interest of maintaining integrity and Publication Standards, the journal employs a plagiarism detection system to subject the manuscript for plagiarism check. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you agree to screen the manuscript prior to evaluation process for plagiarism check against formerly published works. If found in any case that the manuscript is infringed against publication policies, it can be either suspended or rejected at any stage of peer-review process. Hence the authors are closely suggested to declare transparency in any case of duplication and demonstrate significant development in the submitted manuscript than the original article with correct citations.
Please refer to our policies in Publication Ethics prior to your submission.
During submission process author will be asked to accompany a cover letter of approximately 500 words along with the manuscript. This should include manuscript title and a brief description on how relevant to the journal’s scope, contributions made to its respective field and how it adds value to the scientific literature. Also relate the study briefly to previous work. The cover letter should include name of the co-authors if any and full contact details of the corresponding author with office or institutional address, telephone, fax and email address. Corresponding author should clearly state the approval of co-authors for manuscript submission along with any competing interests. It is also firmly suggested to declare that work is purely original and not submitted or published elsewhere. Finally, if this submission is followed by the solicitation or invitation of an Editorial Board member please provide the details. Author can also include any additional information in the cover letter helpful to the Editor.
A declaration should be provided for any report on experiments involving human subjects substantiating that informed consent was obtained from the subject(s) and/or guardian(s). In the cover letter corresponding author should clearly state that the informed consent was obtained.
In accordance with ICMJE guidelines, when a previously published information or copyright material is used or reproduced in the submitted manuscript, it is the corresponding author’s responsibility to attain permission in written from the appropriate author or copyright holder and citing the original source correctly. It is recommended to submit the permission statement along with the manuscript to the Editorial Office to maintain transparency.
Photographs with Identifiable Patients
According to COPE guidelines, a patient’s physical identification has to be masked in photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., whenever they are used and if a patient is identifiable, written permission must be obtained with informed consent from the patient or guardian to use the photograph. It is recommended to submit the permission statement along with the manuscript to the Editorial Office and also clearly state in the manuscript that informed consent has been obtained.
Use generic drug name (or generic name followed by trade name in parentheses). Include manufacturer and their location (city and country) for drugs and devices.
Additional files of any type, such as animations, or original data files, can also be submitted as part of the publication.
The following word processor file formats are acceptable for the main manuscript document:
- Microsoft Word (97,2003, 2007)
- Rich text format (RTF)
- Portable document format (PDF)
For further assistance with the manuscript submission process and manuscript preparation, contact customer support team at firstname.lastname@example.org.
General guidelines of the journal's style and language for a research article are given below. Please note that the total words in the article should not exceed 5000 with 5 figures and tables; however this is flexible but further than may impact the readability.
- Author(s) name
- Key Words
- Introduction or Background
- List of abbreviations used (if any)
- Competing interests
- Authors' contributions
- Acknowledgements and Funding
- Tables and captions (if any)
- Illustrations and Figures
- Figure legends (if any)
- Description of additional data files (if any)
The following items are required on the title page:
- Manuscript title: Should be precise and relevant to the content of the manuscript and having not more than 25 words. Avoid providing abbreviations in the title.
- Running title: a short version of the title (up to 40 characters including spaces, if any).
Authorship is given to those who give substantial contribution to the work. They may carry the experimental work or prepare the manuscript intellectually or involved in the data analysis and drawing conclusions or in any other way reflecting their contributions in the manuscript. Up to 20 individual authors may be listed with Authors' first name or given name followed by the family name or surname.
- Please note the corresponding author’s name and corresponding e-mails should be given.
Group members who do not meet the formal authorship criteria listed in the "Authorship, responsibility, financial disclosure, and copyright transfer" but who contributed materially may be documented in the Acknowledgments section.
Note: Differentiate the corresponding and equally contributed authors by providing special characters as superscripts at the end of their names individually.
Ex: John S Lincon*, Albert E Michale†and Joseph V Kin†
(*) Corresponding author
(†) Equally contributed authors
Along with each author's name, academic degrees and affiliations should be mentioned.
The abstract should be in past tense employing the third person. It should provide a concise summary of the study purpose, scope of experiments, significant findings and conclusions in approximately 350 words organized into following sections: Background, the brief context and main purpose of the study; Methods, how the study was performed with what methods and statistical tests used; Results, the significant findings from the study; Conclusions, brief summary of findings and potential implications for further studies. Avoid usage of abbreviations and cite references in the abstract.
To provide indexing references, list 4 to 10 key words as index terms representing the article content. Use terms from the medical subject headings list of nlm.nih.gov/mesh.
If your research article reports the results of a controlled health care intervention, please list your trial registry, along with the unique identifying number.
Example: Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61362816. Please note that there should be no space between the letters and numbers of your trial registration number.
For further information please go through ISRCTN (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number) and ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors).
The Introduction should be in brief, stating the purpose of the study. Provide background that puts the manuscript into context and allows readers outside the field to understand the significance of the study. Define the problem addressed and why it is important and include a brief review of the key literature. Note any relevant controversies or disagreements in the field. Conclude with a statement of the aim of the work and a comment stating whether that aim was achieved.
In Materials and Methods, the procedures should be described with sufficient details. Provide detailed protocols for the methods used as supporting information. Include the design of the study, the setting, the type of participants or materials involved and a clear description of all interventions and comparisons, and the type of analysis used which includes a power calculation if appropriate. Generic drug names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand names in parentheses. An ethical approval and informed consent has to be stated in methods for studies involving human participants.
Results and Discussion
Results and discussion can be presented in separate sections. Authors should present clear and accurate results. The findings should be explained with the fundamental outcomes evidently relating to the hypothesis presented as the basis of the study. They should be written concisely and logically with emphasis on novel findings and provide explanation of the implications of the findings, particularly in relation to previous related studies and potential future directions for research. The discussion section should contain major interpretations from the findings and results in comparison to past studies. The significance of the findings should be emphasized in this section against previous finding on the topic.
This section should conclude the whole study how it adds value to the available information. Explain the relevance and significance of their findings to the respective field in a brief summary.
Use only standard abbreviations and can be provided as a separate list or should be spelled out in the text when used for the first time. Abbreviations should be used as sparingly as possible. Example: RNA: Ribose Nucleic Acid
After publication, the people or organizations involved in the study will become public and may influence their reputation. This may include study at other organizations or financial relationship. Therefore authors should reveal financial or non-financial relationship with people or organizations and declare their competing interests for the data and information presented in the manuscript. In accordance to ICMJE guidelines, author should complete an acknowledgment for competing interest that will be listed at the end of the published article read as 'The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests'.
While completing the declaration, the following guidelines have to be considered:
Financial competing interest
- Please specify if any organization is having financial relationship with the work involved in the manuscript including funding, salary, reimbursements, article processing charge that may have to endure the financial gain or loss after the publication, either at present or in future.
- Author should specify if they have any stock holdings or shares with any organization that may have to endure the financial gain or loss after the publication, either at present or in future. Also it is recommended to specify if they hold or applying for any patent rights in relation to the content used in the manuscript.
- Please specify if there are any other financial competing interests.
Non-financial competing interest
Please specify any non-financial competing interests relating to political, individual, religious, ideological, educational, rational, commercial, etc., in relation to the manuscript. If there is any uncertainty regarding the competing interests among co-authors, it is recommended to contact and discuss with the editorial office.
Each author will have an individual contribution in conducting the work and manuscript preparation and published work. They deserve an appropriate credit for their involvement and this section can be used to specify their specific role and input. Author provides substantial contributions to the concept and design of the work, conducting experimental procedures and validations, data acquisition, compilation, analysis and interpretation. Author also has the involvement in retrieving conceptual information and draft manuscript preparation; Author even perform critical revision to structure the content intellectually and give approval for the final version to be published. Each other must have involved wholly in the work for their respective portions in the content and hold public liability. Those who involved in general data collection, supervision, technical support and funding arrangements do not hold any authorship, while they can be acknowledged in the acknowledgements section.
Note: Further if there any changes in the authorship, the details of guest and ghost authors should be clearly specified.
Following ICMJE guidelines, finally the corresponding author should give a clear declaration stating that “there won’t be any further changes in the authorship which includes either addition or removal of author’s details and he/she will be sole responsible person for all the communications and proceedings that are needed to be done with the publisher (According to the necessity of the publisher) on behalf of all the authors”.
Please follow the suggested format: MG carried out sample processing and tissue culture methods and drafted the manuscript. TK carried out the immunofluorescence assays. PN participated in staining and flow cytometry analysis. AR participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. HW conceived the study, and participated in the design of study and helped to draft the manuscript. Final manuscript was read and approved by all the authors.
Acknowledgements and Funding
People who contributed towards the work in design of study, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation, draft manuscript preparation and critical revision, provided general or technical support and contributed essential materials for the study but do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in acknowledgements section mentioning their contributions. These also include funding source(s) of each author and describe the involvement of funding body or organization in the whole work. It is recommended to acknowledge the editor if any manuscript was revised for language corrections.
Permissions should be obtained from all those who are acknowledged in this section.
Tables must be simple and prepare each table with double-spacing on a separate sheet of paper. Number tables consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use the following symbols, in sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||||, ¶¶, etc.
Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
Be sure that each table is cited in the text.
If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source fully.
Larger datasets can be uploaded separately as additional files. Additional files will not be displayed in the final, published form of the article, but a link will be provided to the files as supplied by the author.
Illustrations and Figures
Figures should be provided as separate files. Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints. Photographs of potentially identifiable people must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
Figures should be uniformly arranged and numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the figure. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.
The following file formats can be accepted:
- EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
- PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
- PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
- Microsoft Word (figures must be in a single page)
- PowerPoint (figures must be in a single slide)
- CDX (ChemDraw)
- TGF (ISIS/Draw)
Type or print out legends for illustrations using double spacing, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. Start the legend with a title followed by short description of the figure or illustration and care should be taken not to repeat the description in the text. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.
Preparing Additional Files
Although Epidemiology Reports does not imply any restrictions on the length of data in a paper, but still authors may wishes to provide data sets, tables, movie files, or other information as additional information. These files can be uploaded using the 'Additional Material files' button in the manuscript submission process.
The maximum file size for additional files is 20 MB each, and files will be virus-scanned on submission.
Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided.
Authors should mention the following information for all additional material at the end of the document in a separate section:
- File name
- File format (include correct file extension and a URL of an appropriate viewer if format is unusual)
- Title of data
- Description of data
Additional data files should be referenced clearly by file name within the text of the article, e.g. 'See additional file 1: Movie1 for the original data used to perform this analysis'.
Additional file formats
Preferably, additional files should be in usual file formats performing on widely usable and available tools and platforms. Avoid platform-specific file formats. The following are examples of suitable formats.
PDF (Adobe Acrobat)
SWF (Shockwave Flash)
XLS (Excel spreadsheet)
CSV (Comma separated values)
All references must be numbered consecutively, in square brackets, in the order in which they are cited in the text. Reference citations should not appear in titles or headings. Each reference must have an individual reference number. Please avoid excessive referencing. If automatic numbering systems are used, the reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission. Irrespective to the number of authors in the citation, the reference list should contain all named authors. Journal abbreviations should be made in accordance to Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
Citations must refer only articles or abstracts that have been published and available through public servers. Any unpublished abstracts or data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be included in the text and referred appropriately indicating the researchers involved. Obtaining permission by a letter from the relevant authors to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited author(s) and it is the responsibility of the author to acquire them.
Herbert Open Access Journals uses the numbered citation (citation-sequence) method. References are listed and numbered in the order that they appear in the text. In the text, citations should be indicated by the reference number in brackets. Multiple citations within a single set of brackets should be separated by commas. Where there are three or more sequential citations, they should be given as a range. Example: "... now enable biologists to simultaneously monitor the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment [1,5-7,28]." Make sure the parts of the manuscript are in the correct order for the relevant journal before ordering the citations.
Authors are requested to provide at least one online link for each reference (preferably PubMed).
Because all references will be linked electronically as much as possible to the papers they cite, proper formatting of the references is mandatory.
Please use the following style for the reference list:
Author details (surname and initial(s)): Article title (Bold). abbrevated form of the Journal name (in italics) followed by the year, volume no (Bold): page numbers.
- Published papers
Ex: Shuman S: Structure, mechanism, and evolution of the mRNA capping apparatus. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol 2000, 66:1-40.
- Article in Press
Ex: Shuman S: Structure, mechanism, and evolution of the mRNA capping apparatus.Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol 2000, “In Press”.
Author details (surname and initial(s)): Chapter Title (in Bold). Details of Edition (if any), Title of the Book (in Bold). Year, page no's
Ex: Bartol CR and Bartol AM: History of Forensic Psychology. In Weiner IB and Hess AK (Eds.), The Handbook of Forensic Psychology 2005, 1-27.
Author details (surname and initial(s)): Title of paper. Title of the conference. Location, (date/year of conference (if known)) Publisher. Available at: [URL]
Ex: Behrens H: MDSD for iPhone: developing a domain-specific language and IDE tooling to produce real world applications for mobile devices. Proceedings of the ACM international conference companion on Object oriented programming systems languages and applications companion. Reno, Nevada, (21/10/10) ACM. Available at: http://portal.acm.org/.
Author details (surname and initial(s)): Title. Name of the website Year. Available at: [URL]
Ex: Gorge Kin: Destruction of Ozone. National Institute of Nutrition 2010. Available at: [http://www.ninindia.org]
Author details (surname and initial(s)): Title of the News. Name of the news paper Dated.
Ex: John Kenly: Biomolecules for treating municipal waste. USA Today 22-Dec-2011.
Web links and URLs should be included in the reference list. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL
Example: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database [http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do]. If an author or group of authors is associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.
Style and Language
Epidemiology Reports accepts manuscripts written only in English. Spelling should be US English or British English, but not a mixture. Gene, scientific names should be in italic, but protein products should be in plain type. There are no frontiers on the length of articles submitted, but authors are encouraged to be concise for the interest of readers. There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files that can be included with each article online. Figures and tables should be sequentially referenced. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.
Epidemiology Reports will not edit submitted manuscripts for style or language; reviewers may advise rejection of a manuscript if it is compromised by grammatical errors. Authors are advised to write admissible and to be checked by co-authors (if any) before submission. In-house copyediting will be minimal. Non-native speakers of English may choose to make use of a copyediting service.
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