2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Exhibition Road, London, UK.
One of the most attractive fields in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is cardiac cell regeneration due to the limited capacity of the heart muscle to regenerate itself. Recent advances in the field of stem cell bioprocess technology and biomaterials have accelerated progress in creating three-dimensional (3D) cardiac engineered tissues in vitro. Control of bulk and microscopic transport efficiency, which is determined by the choice of the bioreactor design and substrate material, poses direct influence on cell viability, proliferation and differentiation in vitro. This paper provides a critical review on the hydrodynamic considerations with respect to design aspects of the bioreactor and selection of substrate material for 3D cardiac tissue engineering.
Keywords: shear stress, flow dynamics, porosity, topography, stiffness, proliferation, differentiation