2. North Ossetian State Medical Academy (Vladikavkaz), Russian Federation.
3. M.M. Shemyakin–Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow), Russian Federation.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from various tissues are currently regarded as one of the most convenient starting materials for preparation of cell therapy and tissue engineering products. Numerous research groups conducted detailed studies of their therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action in animal models. Some of those effects have been already confirmed in clinical trials. One of the most important properties of mesenchymal stem cells crucial for their medical use is the ability for targeted migration to the sites of ischemic, inflammatory or mechanical injury or site of tumor growth and homing within and around the damaged area. The aim of this review is to delineate the available data concerning the organ and tissue distribution of intravenously transplanted MSCs and the molecular mechanisms underlying their transfer within the bloodstream, penetration through the vascular wall and tissue invasion. The review reveals involvement of chemokines and their receptors, adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases in those processes. Some of the data related to other roots of MSC transplantation, but critical for understanding the essential features of their migration and homing were also included.
Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells, migration, homing, transplantation, distribution