2. Cátedra de Periodoncia, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3. National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Background: The role of IL-1β, PGE2 and MMP-3 in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is well researched. This study aimed to asses and compared the salivary IL-1β, PGE2 and MMP-3 levels in patients with untreated chronic severe periodontitis and those treated with periodontal phase I therapy and periodontally healthy individuals as controls, in relationship to the presence of salivary anti-β1 IgA.
Methods: A total of 30 subjects participate in the study: 15 subjects had chronic severe periodontitis and 15 were healthy individuals used as a control. After saliva collection and its purification, we quantify by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using as coating antigen a synthetic β1 peptide with an amino acid sequence identical to the second extracellular loop of the human β1 adrenoceptor (β1 AR), the presence of anti β1 AR antibody (IgA) in the saliva of patients and healthy individuals. Also, IL-1β, PGE2, nitrites and metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) were assessed using ELISA) assay.
Results: Our data indicated that IL-1β, PGE2, nitrites and MMP-3 levels are elevated in the saliva of patients with untreated chronic severe periodontitis and were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Also, the amounts of anti- β1 IgA in the saliva was significantly higher compared with that of healthy individuals. After periodontal phase I therapy these levels of inflammatory biomarkers are significantly reduced but the titres of the antibody did not change, suggesting a close association between salivary IL-1β, PGE2, nitrites and MMP-3 and periodontitis without any changes in the levels of anti β1 IgA.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the abnormal amount of these cytokines and enzymes in saliva has potential monitoring applications as a risk marker of the disease progression but the raised levels of anti β1 IgA present in the saliva of chronic severe periodontitis patient, are not directly associated with the course of the disease. Additional studies are needed to validate this assumption.
Keywords: Periodontitis, IL-1β, PGE2, antibodies anti-β1 IgA