Oral Biology and Dentistry

Oral Biology and Dentistry

ISSN 2053-5775
Review

Association between periodontitis and the development of systemic diseases

Kimihiro Igari1*, Toshifumi Kudo1, Takahiro Toyofuku1, Yoshinori Inoue1 and Takehisa Iwai2

*Correspondence: Kimihiro Igari igari.srg1@tmd.ac.jp

1. Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Author Affiliations

2. Tsukuba Vascular Center and Buerger Disease Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan.

Abstract

Periodontal diseases, common infectious diseases seen in humans, are characterized by gingival inflammation and a loss of connective tissue and bone around the roots of teeth, which leads to eventual tooth exfoliation. In the past decade, the association between periodontal diseases and the development of systemic diseases has received increasing attention. Periodontal pathogens and their products, as well as inflammatory mediators produced in periodontal tissues, can enter the bloodstream, thereby causing and/ or contributing to the development of systemic diseases. A variety of recent studies have compiled various results showing that periodontal infections are implicated in the development of various systemic diseases. This review summarizes the evolution of the focal infection theory to the current understanding of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease and presents an update of the mechanisms and relationships between chronic periodontitis and systemic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory infections, preterm delivery of low-birth-weight fetuses and diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Periodontitis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary disease

ISSN 2053-5775
Volume 2
Abstract Download