2. Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales and St Vincent's Hospital Sydney Sydney 2052, Nsw, Australia.
3. Director of Dental Health Clinic, Singar, Ninawa, Ministry of Health, Iraq.
4. Drug Discovery and Health Community of Research, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Background: The medical risk factor associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection such as blood transfusion and surgery had been intensely studied in many countries. Up to 40% of patients infected with HCV may have non identifiable routes of viral acquisition. Dental extraction may be one of these risk factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the existence of infection and the predominated HCV genotype among subjects with dental extraction.
Material and methods: A case-control study involving pregnant women with and without history of dental extraction (n=776, n=2715, respectively). HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) were tested using subsequently third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3) and immunoblot assay (Lia Tek-111). In addition 94 serum samples were subjected to molecular analysis using RT-PCR and DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) method for HCV-RNA and genotypes.
Results: Anti-HCV seroprevelance was significantly higher (6.3%) among cases with dental extraction (cases) than their counter control group (control) (2.63%) (p=0.00001). Dental extraction act as a risk factor for HCV infection (OR=2.73; 95% CI=1.8-3.9). HCV-RNA was found to be significantly higher (74.6%) in cases than (38.7%) control group (p=0.0016). No significant association between HCV genotypic and the history of tooth extraction but HCV-1b showed higher rate (90%) among dental extraction cases.
Conclusion: Our study showed that dental extraction acts as a risk factor for acquiring HCV. Complete sterilization and cleaning of equipment is necessary.
Keywords: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dental extraction, risk factor, HCV genotypes