1. Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazz. le Aldo Moro 500161, Rome, Italy.
2. Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046, Tamil Nadu, India.
3. Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, Periyar U1Division of Entomology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046, Tamil Nadu, India.
General concern is that global climate changes will be very important for mosquito-borne diseases diffusion. Three examples concerning current alarms in Italy are reported. The three examples concern different vectors and different stories, from novel introduction of aggressive and dangerous species (Tiger mosquito) with general damages in the country to new virulences of already known diseases (Xilella fastidiosa) and BTV (Blue Tong Virus) in particular regions (Puglia and Sardinia, respectively) Microorganisms have a great advantage to adapt easily to environment, being able to change their genome more rapidly than our genome with a mutation rate of approximately 0.3% per million years. Our genetic background is not able to keep up this increasing mismatch. Therefore, as already experienced, technology is our only possibility to perform tools to face changes and their consequences. Any real utilization for any new need or necessity is a challenge of interdisciplinarity researches. After the disasters derived by the use of synthetic insecticides, natural products seem in pool position for developing of a new generation of eco-friendly and sustainable control of borne-insect vector diseases. The current studies for controlling insect vectors at the larval stage using natural products from neem tree (Azadirachta indica) are reported.
Keywords: Neem cake, azadirachta indica, plant animal insect vectors, bluetongue virus, tiger mosquito, Xilella fastidiosa, fastidious prokaryotes