2. Department of Surgery, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.
3. Department of Pathology, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.
Background: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical parasitic infection. The aim of this study was to determine how frequently different structures within the pelvis and perineum were infected with schistosomiasis and its association with cancer, in surgical pathology specimens in a tertiary hospital in Ghana.
Materials and methods: We reviewed all surgical pathological cases from January 2004 to December 2011 for tissue schistosomiasis. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 (Chicago IL). Identification of the type of schistosoma specie was based on the external features of the ova.
Results: A total of 42,340 surgical specimens were reviewed of which 151 (0.4%) showed schistosoma ova, commonly S. haematobium (98.7%). Mean age of the patients was 36.3years (SD=16.9). Organs involved were; appendix (41.7%), urinary bladder (36.4%), colon (4.6%), ureters (4.0%), fallopian tube (3.3%), cervix (2.65) and prostate (2.0%). Appendiceal schistosomiasis was the most common in males 48(49.5%), while urinary bladder schistosomiasis was most common in females (40.7%). A total of 31(20.5%) cases were associated with cancer, mean age 52.1 (SD=14.6) years and commonly in the urinary bladder (93.6%). Majority of the cancers were Squamous Cell Carcinoma (71.0%), with 25.8% transitional cell carcinoma and 3.2% adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
Conclusion: We found tissue schistosomiasis prevalence rate of 0.4% among surgical pathological specimens. The commonest species identified was S. haematobium. The appendix was the organ most commonly involved. About 20.5% of all cases were associated with cancer and occurred in a relatively older age group of the study population.
Keywords: Pelvis tissues, schistosomiasis, cancer, ghana