Table 1 : List of the reviewed studies.


Article Instruments Pelvic motion Lumbar motion Characterization approaches for LPR

Paquet et al., 1994 Electrogoniometer (JS) hip flexion (L) Change of the angle
between T8 and S1
Timing: Plot of hip vs. lumbar motion, normalized to their maximum
Magnitude: Absolute displacement of the hip and lumbar spine

Gracovetsky
et al., 1995
Infrared light-
emitting diodes (M)
Rotation of the line normal to the plane made by markers on the iliac crests and sacrum (G) Rotation of the best fit line through the markers on the thoracolumbar spine Magnitude: Absolute displacement of the hip and lumbar spine

Nelson et al., 1995 3-Space Tracker System (SS) Sacral rotation (G) Rotation of the best fit line passing
through the whole thoracolumbar spine
Timing: Plot of the lumbar and pelvis motion vs. gross trunk motion normalized to their maximum

Esola et al., 1996 Opteoelectric motion analysis system (M) Rotation of S2 relative to the posterior midline of thigh (L) Rotation of T12-L1
segment relative to S2
Magnitude: Lumbar to hip motion ratio for intervals of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 degrees & Lumbar to hip motion ratio for each 25% of total duration

McClure et al., 1997 Opteoelectric motion analysis system (M) Rotation of S2 relative to the posterior midline of thigh (L) Rotation of T12-L1
segment relative to S2
Magnitude: Lumbar to hip motion ratio for each 25% of extension

Porter & Wilkinson, 1997 3-Space Tracker System (SS) Sacral rotation relative to the lateral femoral condyle (L) Rotation of T12 relative to the sacrum Magnitude: Contribution of the lumbar spine and hip to the movement at 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°

Tully &
Stillman, 1997
Videotape (M) Rotation of the line from mid-PSIS to ASIS relative to the line from 2/3 Th to LFC (L) Rotation of T10-T12
segment relative to the line from
| mid-PSIS to ASIS
Magnitude: Displacement curves of the hip and spine

Granata & Sanford, 2000 Electromagnetic sensors (SS) Rotation of S1 (G) Rotation of T12 relative to S1 Timing: Lumbar vs. pelvic motion plot
Magnitude: Lumbar to pelvic motion ratio for intervals of  0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 degrees

Lariviere et al., 2000 Video cameras (M) Sacral rotation (G) Rotation of the thoracic vertebrae
relative to the sacrum
Timing: Mean, standard deviation and maximum of the continuous relative phase

Lee & Wong, 2002 3SPACE Fastrak (JS) Sacral rotation relative to the lateral
aspect of the left and right thighs (L)
Rotation of L1 relative to sacrum Timing: Time lag (maximum coss-correlation between the lumbar and pelvic velocity curves)
Magnitude: Absolute displacement of the hip and lumbar spine

Wong & Lee, 2004 3SPACE Fastrak (JS) Sacral rotation relative to the posterior aspect of the left and right thighs (L) Rotation of L1 relative to sacrum Timing: Time lag (maximum coss-correlation between the lumbar and pelvic motion velocity curves)
Magnitude: Absolute displacement of the hip and lumbar spine

Pal et al., 2007 3-D Motion Analysis System (M) Rotation of the line from the mid of
ASISs to the mid of PSISs relative
to the line from 1/3 thigh to LFE (L)
Rotation of the line between T11 and
L1 relative to Line between the two
ASISs and PSISs
Timing: Time of initiation of each and time to reach the peak velocity
Magnitude: Absolute displacement of the hip and lumbar spine

Thomas et al., 2007 Magnetic based kinematic system (SS) Sacral rotation relative to the right
thigh (L)
Rotation of T1 relative to sacrum Timing: Movement latencies for the initiation, peak and termination of motion
Magnitude: Lumbar to hip motion ratios for the quartiles of movement

Milosavljevic et al., 2008 3-D Motion Analysis System (M) Rotation of the line between the two
ASISs and PSISs relative To the lin
e from 1/3 thigh to LFE (L)
Rotation of the line between T11 and
L1 relative to Line between the two
ASISs and PSISs
Timing: Time of initiation of each and time to reach the peak velocity

van
Wingerden
et al., 2008
Video (M) Rotation of the line from sacrum to
anterior superior iliac spine (G)
Rotation of the line from L1 to 7cm
above relative to the line from sacrum
to anterior superior iliac spine
Magnitude: Slopes coming from the regression between displacements of the spine and the total trunk displacement in the 1st and 3rd intervals

Silfies et al., 2009 Electromagnetic
tracking device (SS)
Rotation of S2 relative to the lateral epicondyle (L) Rotation of L1 relative to S2 Timing: Mean absolute relative phase (MARP)
and deviation phase (DP)

Kim et al. 2013 3-D Motion Capture System (M) Pelvic rotation  relative to the femur (L) Rotation of T12 relative to the pelvis Magnitude: Absolute displacement of the hip and lumbar spine &
Lumbar to hip motion ratios for the quartiles of movement

Hasebe et al., 2013 Video (M) Sacral rotation (G) Rotation of L5 relative to L1 Magnitude: Lumbar to hip motion ratio for three intervals of forward bending

Hu et al., 2014 Magnetic field based motion tracking
system (SS)
Rotation of S1 (G) Rotation of T12 relative to S1 Timing: Continuous relative phase for each 25% of the trunk motion time

Iwasaki et al., 2014 Electrogoniometers (JS) Sacral rotation Rotation of L5 relative to L1 Timing: Plot of normalized lumbar and pelvic motion vs. the normalized trunk duration of motion

Lariviere et al., 2014        3D-motion system comprising inertial
sensors (SS)
Sacral rotation Rotation of the thoracic vertebrae
relative to the sacrum
Timing: Mean, standard deviation and maximum of the continuous relative phase

Phillips et al., 2014 Motion
capture system (M)
Not available Not available Magnitude: Lumbar to pelvic motion ratios for the quartiles of movement

Tafazzol et al., 2014 Inertial and magnetic sensors (SS) Rotation of S1 Rotation of L1 relative to S1 Timing: Normalized pelvic vs normalized lumbar motion
Magnitude: Lumbar to pelvic motion ratio for each 10% increment of the motion

Hu & Ning, 2015 (A) 3D, magnetic field based motion
tracking system (SS)
Rotation of S1 (G) Rotation of T12 relative to S1 Timing: Normalized pelvic motion vs normalized lumbar motion
Magnitude: Lumbar to pelvic motion ratio for each 10% increment of the motion

Hu & Ning, 2015 (B) 3D, magnetic field based motion
tracking system (SS)
Rotation of S1 (G) Rotation of T12 relative to S1 Timing: Continuous relative phase for each 25% of the trunk motion time

Pries et al., 2015 Epionics SPINE system (JS) Sacral rotation (G) Change in the lumbar lordosis Magnitude: Lumbar to pelvic motion ratio for each point of the motion &
Lumbar to pelvic motion ratio for the early, middle and late stages of motion, as well as the total motion

Vazirian et al.,
Under Review
Magnetic-inertial motion trackers (SS) Pelvic rotation (G) Rotation of T10 relative to pelvis Magnitude: Lumbar to thoracic motion ratio for four quarters of the motion

Summary of letter under each column is given in the footnote of the table. Instrument column: JS: joint sensor, SS: segment sensor, M: Marker. Pelvic motion column: L: local, G: global

Bazrgari et al.Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation  2016 3:5DOI : 10.7243/2055-2386-3-5