Table 1 : Mean (SD) of participant demographic characteristics, ankle range of motion
values and performance metrics for balance and gait parameters.


  Young=22 Older=15 P-value

Demographic Characteristic

Age (years)a 27.1±4.3 70.3±5.3 0.01
Height (inches)a 67.5±4.2 63.3±4.2 0.01
Weight (pounds)a 162.9±39.8 181.1±38.8 0.18
Gender (%female)b 50.00% 86.70% 0.02

Ankle DF ROM

NWB-AROM (degrees)a 11.7±5.4 7.4±3.8 0.01
NWB-PROM (degrees)a 15.4±5.7 12.7±4.5 0.14
WBDF (degrees)a 28.1±7.2 28.8±8.9 0.80

Limits of Stability

EPE-Forward (% LOS)a 65.2±21.9 46±17.9 0.01
MXE-Forward (% LOS)a 86.4±12.5 72.9±16.1 0.01
EPE-Right Forward (% LOS)a 80.6±11.3 67.7±21.8 0.02
MXE-Right Forward (% LOS)a 93.6±10.7 83.1±14.0 0.01
EPE-Left Forward (% LOS)a 82.5±21.7 75.8±23.6 0.38
MXE-Left Forward (% LOS)a 96.5±8.1 88.3±18.9 0.08

Gait

Velocity (cm/s)a 136.1±16.9 116.0±22.7 0.00
Cadence (steps/min)a 117.7±9.7 120.5±11.7 0.45
Step Length Left (cm)a 69.6±5.9 57.4±7.6 0.00
Stance Time Right (% gait cycle)a 0.632±.02 0.641±.08 0.67
Single Support Time Right (% gait cycle)a 0.398±.02 0.366±.03 0.00

SD: Standard deviation; DF: dorsiflexion; ROM: range of motion;
EPE: end point excursion; MXE: maximum excursion;
cm: centimeter; s: second; min: minute
aIndependent t-test; bChi-Square

Norris et al.Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation  2016 3:6DOI : 10.7243/2055-2386-3-6