Table 1 : Step length and stride frequency when walking on land and in water (n=10).


  Slow (2.4 km/h) Moderate (3.6 km/h) Significance Effect size
(land-water)
Land Water Land Water

Variable Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI Mean (SD) 95% CI -- --
Step length, m 0.49 (0.05) 0.45-0.53 0.57 (0.05) 0.53-0.61 0.56 (0.04) 0.53-0.59 0.64 (0.06) 0.60-0.68 P<0.01*† 0.674
Stride frequency, stride/min 41.7 (4.2) 38.7-44.7 35.6 (2.6) 33.7-37.5 53.0 (3.0) 50.9-55.1 41.6 (4.4) 38.5-44.7 P<0.01*† 0.994

CI: Confidence Intervals
*Difference between land and water
†Difference between walking speeds

Sato et al.Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation  2017 4:10DOI : 10.7243/2055-2386-4-10