2. McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, 850 Peter Morand Crescent Ottawa, Canada K1G 5Z3, Canada.
3. Department of Public Health Sciences, 62 Fifth Field Company Lane, Queens University, Kingston, Canada K7L 3N6, Canada.
4. Department of Mechanical Engineering, 161 Louis Pastor, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada K1N 6N5, Canada.
Background: Heart failure (HF) is an emerging epidemic that affects both sexes and all races. It is a complex clinical disease with symptoms caused from any structural or functional cardiac disorder, resulting in reduced longevity. HF is a weakening process that is difficult to treat and it exists in various conditions in which therapy needs to be customized. HF has reached epidemic scopes, mainly among the elderly, in whom it might be a reason for hospitalization. Common types of therapy for HF cases focus on pharmaceuticals and medical instrumentation. However, new approaches of patient-centered care that are based on complementary management strategies, improving quality of life without causing an economic worry or health side effects, are needed to decrease hospitalizations.
Purpose: Epidemiology, public health, risk factors, HF management, and several therapeutic heat and cold modalities have been investigated and discussed.
Results: Thermotherapy has a scientific evidence-based effect on the human body and can be used for treatment and rehabilitation of the heart.
Conclusion: The progress made in bioheat transfer modelling and energy delivery techniques will have an impact on the development of effective therapeutic modalities that deliver controlled heat and/or cold to the human body.
Keywords: Thermotherapy, epidemiology, risk profile, rehabilitation, heart failure management, heat transfer, thermoregulatory modeling