Figure 8 : Associative learning in the fear conditioning paradigm..

Percentage freezing (as an indication of learning) was measured. Stressed females (A) and derived offspring (B) showed a higher index of learning during training compared to controls. Twenty four hours after training, memory to the context and the sound were determined. (C) Recall of the task to contextual place showed that stressed mothers had a higher freezing behavior compared to their controls, perhaps due to the previous exposure to stress by single shock. (D) Recall of the task to contextual place by the juveniles derived from stressed mother showed not deficits as compared to juveniles derived from undisturbed females. Similar results were obtained when measuring recall of the task to the sound in mothers (E) and their respective offspring (F). *=p<0.05.

Tejada-Simon et al.Journal of Psychiatry and Brain Functions  2015 2:10DOI : 10.7243/2055-3447-2-10