2. Service de Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fann, Faculté de Médecine, de Pharmacie et d’Odontologie (FMPO), BP : 5035 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.
3. Department des sciences physico-chimiques, Unité d’Enseignement et Recherche, Université Iba Der Thiam, BP : A967 Grand Standing, Thiès, Sénégal.
4. Institut de Santé et de Développement (ISED), Département de Médecine, Faculté de Médecine, de Pharmacie et d’Odontologie (FMPO), Université Cheikh Anta Diop, BP : 5005 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.
5. Laboratoire de Physiologie et d’Exploration Fonctionnelle, Département de Médecine, Faculté de Médecine, de Pharmacie et d’Odontologie (FMPO), Université Cheikh Anta Diop, BP : 5005 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.
Indoor air pollution is the underlying cause of 4 million deaths throughout the worldwide, of which 11% is directly caused by obstructive pulmonary disease. This study showed the possibilities of characterizing indoor air pollution in Medina neighbourhood (Dakar) and it also made it possible to estimate the impact of the main living room’s ventilation on the occurrence of obstructive lung diseases (Asthma and COPD). This is a cross-sectional study based on a socio-demographic survey, air quality metrology (CO, PM10, NO, CO2) and Functional Respiratory Assessment (spirometry). The impact measurement was carried out by logistic regression taking into account a certain number of confounding factors. Participants are distributed between 27 households which mainly use gas (55.56%) and charcoal (29.63%) as cooking fuel and in closed kitchens with window (66.67%). The prevalence of Obstructive pulmonary diseases is estimated at 33.06%. Regarding pollutants, levels are below WHO guidelines: CO (3.81 ppm), CO2 (531.5 ppm), PM10 (0.27 μg/m3) and NO (2.88 μg/m3). In addition, study revealed an association between obstructive pulmonary diseases and living room’s ventilation (chi-squared test’s p-value = 0.02). Indeed, this lack of ventilation exposes residents to a higher risk of obstructive pulmonary disease: the Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR [95%CI]) for medium and for poor levels are respectively estimated at 2.54 [1.27-5.08] and 2.06 [1.02-4.17]. These results therefore suggest that indoor air quality, particularly the renewal of air in the living rooms, as a determining factor of residents respiratory health condition.
Keywords: Indoor air, Respiratory lung disease, Senegal, Spirometry, West Africa