Table 3 : Behavioral Characteristics of Women Screened by Enrollment Status (n=463), Kisumu Ring Study, 2014.


Variable Level Total
(N=463)
n (%)
Enrolled
(N=302)
n (%)
Not Enrolled
(N=161)
n (%)
Enrolled
Prevalence
Prevalence
Ratio (95% CI)
P-value

Reproductive and Sexual Health            

Age at sexual debuta           0.328

13 or less 77 (20.8) 50 (21.0) 27 (20.3) 64.9 1.33 (0.93, 1.91) 0.119
14-16 126 (34.0) 85 (35.7) 41 (30.8) 67.5 1.38 (0.98, 1.95) 0.064
17-19 129 (34.8) 84 (35.3) 45 (33.8) 65.1 1.34 (0.95, 1.89) 0.100
20+ 39 (10.5) 19 (8.0) 20 (15.0) 48.7 Ref. --

Ever experienced physically forced sex           0.446

Yes 121 (34.6) 82 (36.0) 39 (32.0) 67.8 1.06 (0.91, 1.24) 0.446
No 229 (65.4) 146 (64.0) 83 (68.0) 63.8 Ref. --

# lifetime sexual partners           0.029*

1 60 (15.9) 44 (18.1) 16 (11.9) 73.3 1.34 (1.07, 1.67) 0.011
2-3 195 (51.7) 132 (54.3) 63 (47.0) 67.7 1.23 (1.02, 1.59) 0.029
4+ 122 (32.4) 67 (27.6) 55 (41.0) 54.9 Ref. --

# partners in past 3 months           0.016*

1 272 (82.9) 186 (87.3) 86 (74.8) 68.4 1.42 (1.07, 1.88) 0.016
2+ 56 (17.1) 27 (12.7) 29 (25.2) 48.2 Ref. --

HIV+ partner in the past 3 months           0.483

Yes 83 (27.7) 51 (26.3) 32 (30.2) 61.4 0.93 (0.77, 1.13) 0.483
No 217 (72.3) 143 (73.7) 74 (69.8) 65.9 Ref. --

HIV status unknown partnersin past 3 months           0.118*

Yes 153 (50.5) 94 (47.2) 59 (56.7) 61.4 0.88 (0.75, 1.03) 0.118
No 150 (49.5) 105 (52.8) 45 (43.3) 70.0 Ref. --

Abnormal vaginal bleeding in the past 12 months           0.020*

Yes 100 (21.8) 74 (24.8) 26 (16.3) 74.0 1.18 (1.03, 1.36) 0.020
No 358 (78.2) 224 (75.2) 134 (83.8) 62.6 Ref. --

Exchange sexb in the past 3 months           0.923

Yes 48 (14.0) 31 (13.9) 17 (14.3) 64.6 0.99 (0.79, 1.24) 0.923
No 294 (86.0) 192 (86.1) 102 (85.7) 65.3 Ref. --

Vaginal or anal sexc without a condom in the
past 3 months
          0.197

Yes 305 (91.9) 202 (93.5) 103 (88.8) 66.2 1.28 (0.88, 1.85) 0.197
No 27 (8.1) 14 (6.5) 13 (11.2) 51.9 Ref. --

Ever been pregnant           0.460

Yes 416 (90.8) 273 (91.6) 143 (89.4) 65.6 1.10 (0.85, 1.43) 0.460
No 42 (9.2) 25 (8.4) 17 (10.6) 59.5 Ref. --

Currently pregnant (self-report)           0.698

Yes 7 (1.5) 4 (1.3) 3 (1.9) 57.1 -- --
No 450 (98.5) 294 (98.7) 156 (98.1) 65.3 Ref. --

Pregnancy test result           <0.001*

Positive 8 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 8 (5.0) 0.0 -- --
Negative/Other 453 (98.3) 302 (100.0) 151 (95.0) 66.7 Ref. --

Number contraceptive methods past 12 months           0.005*

0 11 (2.4) 2 (0.7) 9 (5.6) 18.2 -- --
1 334 (72.5) 223 (74.1) 111 (69.4) 66.8 -- --
2+ 116 (25.2) 76 (25.2) 40 (25.0) 65.5 Ref. --

Ever used female condom           0.192*

Yes 55 (12.0) 31 (10.4) 24 (15.0) 56.4 0.85 (0.67, 1.08) 0.192
No 403 (88.0) 267 (89.6) 136 (85.0) 66.3 Ref. --

Ever had sex during menses           0.256

Not applicable 65 (14.1) 39 (13.0) 26 (16.3) 60.0 0.84 (0.67, 1.06) 0.149
No 294 (63.9) 189 (63.0) 105 (65.6) 64.3 0.90 (0.78, 1.05) 0.178
Yes 101 (22.0) 72 (24.0) 29 (18.1) 71.3 Ref. --

Ever had a STI (self-reported)           0.574

Yes 109 (29.1) 74 (30.1) 35 (27.3) 67.9 1.05 (0.89, 1.22) 0.574
No 265 (70.9) 172 (69.9) 93 (72.7) 64.9 Ref. --

≥1 STI test resultsd           0.197*

Yes 321 (70.4) 204 (68.5) 117 (74.1) 63.6 0.91 (0.79, 1.05) 0.197
No 135 (29.6) 94 (31.5) 41 (25.9) 69.6 Ref. --

HIV test result           <0.001*

Positive 67 (14.5) 0 (0.0) 67 (42.1) 0.0 -- --
Negative 394 (85.5) 302 (100.0) 92 (57.9) 76.6 Ref. --

Past medication adherence history (lifetime)           0.570

High 166 (36.4) 111 (37.2) 55 (34.8) 66.9 1.10 (0.91, 1.31) 0.328
Modest 177 (38.8) 118 (39.6) 59 (37.3) 66.7 1.09 (0.91, 1.31) 0.340
 Low 113 (24.8) 69 (23.2) 44 (27.8) 61.1 Ref. --

Substance use            

Alcohol use in past 30 days           0.239

Yes 111 (24.0) 67 (22.2) 44 (27.3) 60.4 0.90 (0.76, 1.07) 0.239
No 352 (76.0) 235 (77.8) 117 (72.7) 66.8 Ref. --

Ever used drugs           0.825

Yes 27 (5.9) 17 (5.7) 10 (6.3) 63.0 0.97 (0.72, 1.30) 0.825
No 430 (94.1) 280 (94.3) 150 (93.8) 65.1 Ref. --

Sample sizes fluctuate slightly for some variables due to missing data. Some percentages do not sum to 100 because of rounding.
*Variable met p-value ≤.20 criteria for inclusion in the multivariable analysis.
a22.9% reported first sex before the age of 15.
bReceived gifts, money, food, shelter, cosmetics, other material goods, and/or services for providing sex.
c34 women reported anal sex in the past 12 months; 33 out of the 34 indicated that a condom was not used.
d54.9% tested positive for HSV-2, 3.9% for gonorrhea, 1.9% for syphilis, 4.5% for chlamydia, and 38.0% for bacterial vaginosis.

McLellan-Lemal et al.Research Journal of Women's Health  2016 3:1DOI : 10.7243/2054-9865-3-1