Research Journal of Women's Health

Research Journal of Women's Health

ISSN 2054-9865
Original Research

Women’s experience with pain during hysterosalpingographic investigation in Calabar, South-South Nigeria

Mabel Ikpim Ekott1*, Akpan Ubong Bassey1, Oku Oboku2, Bassey Darlene3 and Udo Atim Edet1

*Correspondence: Mabel Ikpim Ekott

1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

Author Affiliations

2. Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

3. Department of Radiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.


Background: Hysterosalpingogram is a useful investigation for evaluation of infertility. However the procedure is associated with variable degrees of pain and discomfort.

Objective: The objectives of the study were to determine the intensity of pains experienced by women during the investigation, the management of the pains by providers and women’s expectation and satisfaction with their pain management.

Methodology: This was a prospective cohort study involving women who had Hysterosalpingography at radiologic centres in Calabar between July 2013 and June 2014. Structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic profile, pre and post procedure care, pain intensity, its management and women’s satisfaction with their care. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Statistically significant level was set at <0.5.

Results: The analysis was based on 93 returned completed questionnaire. The mean age was 33 ± 6.03 (SD). About half 51(54.8%) of the women had tertiary level of education and 49(52%) were nulliparous. The commonest indication for HSG was infertility 69(74.2%). Pain experienced was rated as severe (7-10) by 29(31.2%) women and moderate (4-6) by 35(37.6%). Pre-procedure analgesics were administered to 45(48.5%) women. Most women were satisfied with their pre 55(59%) and post 50(53.8%) procedure care. However, satisfaction was not significantly influenced by the severity of the pain experienced p=0.4. The study revealed that majority of the women experienced moderate to severe levels of pain and in most cases use of analgesics during HSG procedure was inadequate. Proper and adequate pain management should be integrated into the procedure.

Keywords: Hysterosalpingogram, pain, analgesics, satisfaction, infertility, women, perception

ISSN 2054-9865
Volume 5
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